In the abbreviations used here, P stands for Pali; S for Sanskrit and Jap.forJapanese languages.
1. (QUEEN) MÀYÀ (P and S); MAKA (Jap.): The mother of Buddha and wifeof king Suddhodana. She lived in the ancient country of Koliya (P) whichis now in Nepal. She is also called Mahà Màyà (P).
2. SUDDHODANA (P), SUDDHODANA (S), JÒBONNÒ (Jap.): The father of PrincezSiddhartà (the Buddha) and was a chieftain of the Sakya tribe. He wasthe head of a small kingdom in the foothills of Himalayas with itts capitalat Kapilavatthu (P) which is now in Nepal.
3.LUMBINI (P and S): The name of a park where the Buddha Shakyamuni (P) wasborn over 2,600 years ago. It was near the capital of Kapilavatthu of theSakya tribe. The place is now known as Rummindei within the territory ofpresent-day Nepal. Asoka, king of ancient India (273-232 B.C.) came hereon a pilgrimage in c.250 B.C. He erected a stone pillar here in commemorationof his visit. Lumbini is one of the four most important holy places inBuddhism. The three other sacred places are Buddha Gaya, Sarnath, and Kusinara.
4. SIDDHATTHA (P), SIDDHÀRTHA (S), SHITTA-TAISHI (Jap.): Literally “hewho has accomplished his aim”. The personal name of the historical Buddhabefore His renunciation of the world.
5. ASITA (P and S), ASHIDA (Jap.): The seer who lived in Kapilavatthu (modernNepal). When prince Siddhàrtha was born, Asita came to see him and foretoldthat in future if he remained at home he would become a great king, andthat if he left home he would become a Buddha.
6. DEVADATTA (P and S); DAIBADATTA (Jap.): A cousin of the Buddha. At first,he was a follower of the Buddha but later he became His enemy. Devadattatried twice to kill the Buddha. The first time, from the hill, he flunga stone at Him. The Buddha was injured, but soon recovered after treatmentby Jivaka physician. The second time, he incited the elephant keepers inRàjagaha of the ancient kingdom of Magadha to release a drunken elephantNalagiri and let him loose on the street to kill the Buddha. But when theelephant came close to the Buddha, he bowed down at His feet. Near theend of his life, Devadatta realized his mistakes. One day, he was comingto the Buddha to ask for His forgiveness, but before he reached Him, hewas consumed by hell-fire.
7. YASODHÀRA (P), YÁSODHARÀ (S), YASHUDARA (Jap.):: The wife of PrinceSiddhàrtha before he left his home and mother of Rahula (P), son of theBuddha. She later became a Buddhist nun.
8. SUPRABUDDHA (P), ZENKAKU (Jap.): The King ruled theee Koliya tribe whosecapital was Devadaha which is now in Nepal. He was the father of Yasodharà.
9. RAHULA (P and S), RAGORA (Jap.): The son of the Buddha born before Hisrenunciation of the world. His mother was Yasodharà. Later, he beecameone of the ten great disciples of the Buddha.
10. KAPILAVATTTHU (P), KAPILAVASTU (S), KABIRA-E (Jap.): The capital ofthe tribe of the Sakyas of whom king Suddhodana was a ruler. The Buddhawas born in Lumbini Park near Kapilavatthu and spent his childhood andyouth there. The Indian archaeologists identified it with the present-dayvillageof Tilaurakota in the Terai region of modern Nepal.
11. CHANNA (P), CHANDAKA (S), SHANOKU (Jap.). The servant of Prince Siddhartha(the future Buddha). He led the white horse Kanthaka on whose back thePrince was riding on the night of his renunciation of the world. Channalater became a disciple of the Buddha.
12. KANTHAKA (P), KANTHAKA (S), KENCHOKU (Jap.): The name of the horseon which the Buddha was mounted when he left his palace to renounce theworld.
13. MAGADHA (P and S), MAKADA (Jap.): One of the sixteeen major kingdomsof ancient India during the Buddha's time. Magadha was then ruled by theking Bimbisàra (543-493 B.C.) with its capital in Ràjagaha. The old countryof Magadha is now in the modern Patna and Gaya districts of the Bihar statein the northeast India.
14. BIMBISÀRA (P and S), BIMBISHARA (Jap.): The name of the king who ruledthe ancient kingdom of Magadha (543-493 B.C.) during the Buddha's time.He built the city of Ràjagaha. According to the Pali tradition., Bimbisàraascended the throne at the age of fifteeen and the following year, he saidto have become a follower of the Buddha. He was an enthusiastic supporterof Buddhism and presented the Bambooo Grove Monastery to the Buddha forthe use of the Assembly of the Buddhist Monks.
15. RÀJAGAHA (P), RÀJAGRHA (S), ÒSHA-JÒ (Jap.): The capital of theancient kingdom of Magadha, present-day Rajgir city in the Bihar stateof the northeast India.
16. ALÀRA-KÀLÀMA (P), ÀRÀDA-KALAMA (S), ARARAKARAN (Jap.): The nameof the hermit to whom Prince Siddhàrtha visited and asked about the enlightenmentimmediately after he left his royal palace and became an ascetic. Alàra-Kàlàmais said to have been a Samkhya philosopher and to have lived near the Vesalicity, modern Besàrh in the Muzzaffapur district of Bihar state in thenortheast India.
17. UDDAKA-RÀMAPUTTA (P), UDRAKA-RÀMAPUTRA (S): One of the teachers underwhom Prince Siddhàrtha after leaving the world and before He became theBuddha, received instructions.
18. NERANJARÀ (P), NAIRANJANÀ (S), NIRENZENGA (Jap.): The name of a riverduring the Buddha's time. It is now called by Indian people the Phalguor Lilajana river with its clear, blue, pure and cold water. The riverhas its source near the Simeria region in the district of Hazaribad inthe central Bihar state of the northeast India. This river was visitedand bathed by Priest Siddhartha after He gave up his practices of penances.There was a Sala grove
onthe banks where the Buddha spent the afternoon previous to the night ofHis enlightenment after sitting meditation 49
daysunder the Bodhi-Tree, located in the present-day Buddha Gaya village whichis situated at a short distance to the west of this river.
19. GAYÀ (P), GAYA (Jap.): The holy city in the Bihar state of the northeastIndia. The Buddha often came to visit and stay at this place during Hislifetime. Gayà comprises the modern town of Sahebganj on the norhternside and the ancient town of Gayà on the southern side. Buddha-Gayawhere the Buddha attained enlightenment is about 10 kilometres south ofGayà.
21. SUJÀTÀ (P): Daughter of a land owner in the village of Senani nearthe small city of Uruvela during the Buddha's time, present-day Urel villagewhich is situated six miles from the city of Gaya in the Gaya districtof the Bihar state in the northeast India. Sujàtà made a promise to theGod of the banyan tree near by that she would offer a meal of milk-riceto
theGod if she gave birth to a son. Her wish wsas fulfilled, the son was born,and she sent her maid to prepare the place for the offering. Her maid,finding priest Siddhàrtha sitting under the banyan, thought that he wasthe tree-God present in person to recieve the offering. She brought thenews to Sujàtà, who in great joy, brought the food in a golden bowl andoffered it to him. This was the only meal of the Buddha previous to thenight of His enlightenment after 49 days of His sittting meditation underthe Bodhi-Tree which is located in the
BuddhaGaya village in the Bihar state of the northeast India.
21. BÀRÀNASI (P and S), HARANASHI (Jap.) Also BANARAS (old name): A cityon the Ganges river, the capital of the kingdom of Kasi which was one ofthe sixteen major countries during the Buddha's time. About seven mmilesfrom Baranasi was Sarnath (Deer Park) where the Buddha preached His firstdiscourse on the “Sermon on Setting in motion of the wheel of the Law”to His five disciples of Buddhist monks. Baranasi (or Banaras) is now themodern city of Varanasi of Benares in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northernIndia (See footnoote No.22).
22. MIGADÀYA (P), MRGADÀVA (S), ROKUYA-ON (Jap.): Literally means “DeerPark”. One of the four important sacred places of Buddhism. Its ancientname is Isipatana (P) or Rsipatana (S). The modern name is Sarnath, situatedat a distance of about seven miles from the present-day city of Benaresof Varanasi, in the Uttar Pradesh state of the northern India. This isthe place where the Buddha preached to His five disciples of Buddhist monksHis first discourse on the Dhammacakkappavattana-Sutta (P) or harmacakrapravartana-Sùtra(S), the translation of which is rendered “Sermon on the Setting in Motionof the Wheel of the Law”. There, also, the Buddha spent His first rainyseason.
23. MÀRA (P and S), MA (Jap.): The Evil One, the Tempter, the God of lust,sin and death. Màra is the Lord of the “Paranirmita-vasavartin (S) orthe Sixth Heaven of the Desire Realm. He is often depicted with a hundredarms,
ridingon an elephant. Màra symbolizes in Buddhism the passions that overwhelmhuman beings as well as everything that hinders the arising of the wholesomeroots and progress on the path of salvation and enlightenment.
24. BUDDHA (P and S), BUTSUDA (Jap.): Derived from the Sanskrit verb root“Budh” meaning to understand, to be aware of, or to awake. It describesa person who has achieved the enlightenment that leads to release fromthe cycle of birth and death and has thereby attained complete liberation.
25. GIJJHAKÙTA (P), GRDHRAKÙTA (S), GISHAKUTSU-SEN (Jap.). Also called“Vulture's Peak”. It was so called because it resembled a vulture-likepeak and also because the vultures used to dwell on its peak. It is oneof the five famous hills surrounding the inner area of Ràjagaha (P) duringthe Buddha's time, present-day town of Rajgir in the Bihar state of thenortheast India. Its caverns were always inhabited by the ascetics of ancientdays and the Buddha also came to stay at this place to sit meditation severaltimes during His sojourn in Ràjagaha. It is said that the Buddha preachedthere many important discourses of the Greater Vehicle including the LotusSculpture.
26. AJÀTASATTU (P), AJÀTASATRU (S), AJASE (Jap.): The son of king Bimbisàraand queen Vaidehi. He reigned over the kingdom of Magadha (494-462 B.C.)during
thelast 8 years of the Buddha's life and for 24 years after the Buddha's death.His name “Ajatasattu” means “enemy (sattu) while still unborn (ajata)”which, according to the legend, derives from his mother's wish to drinkblood from the knee of her husband. This was interpreted by the astrologersto mean that the child she was beearing would kill his father (Bimbisàra)and seize the kingdom. In fact, according to the Buddhist tradition, Ajàtasattuimprisoned his father and starved him to death. And together with Devadatta,he developed a conspiracy against the Buddha which was unsuccessful. Later,Ajàtasattu became a follower of the Buddha and support strongly Buddhism.Eventually, he was killed by his own son, prince Udayabhadra, who ruledfor 14 years.
27. ANANDA (P and S), ANAN (Jap.): A cousin of the Buddha. One of the Buddha'sten great disciples. He was personal attendant to the lord Buddha for morethan twenty years. He was famed for his excellent memory and is said tohave recited all the Buddha's sermons which were later recorded as “Basketof Buddhist scriptures”. Ananda is said to have attained enlightenmentafter the passing (death) of the Buddha and to have lived to the age of120.28. KUSINÀRÀ (P), KÚSINAGARA (S), KUSHINAGARA (Jap.): The capital ofthe kingdom of Mallas (P), one of the sixteen major countries in Indiaduring the Buddha's lifetime. It is identified with the modern villageof Kasia which is situated about 55 kilometers to the east of