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12. Kinh Lô-hi-gia

30/03/201110:28(Xem: 1479)
12. Kinh Lô-hi-gia

Đại Tạng Kinh Việt Nam
KINH TRƯỜNG BỘ
Dìgha Nikàya
Hòa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt - Phật Lịch 2535 - 1991

12. Kinh Lohicca (Lô-hi-gia)
(Lohicca sutta)

1. Như vậy tôi nghe. Một thời đức Thế Tôn đang đi du hành tại nước Kosala (Câu-tát-la) cùng với đại chúng Tỷ-kheo khoảng năm trăm vị, và đến tại Sàlavatikà (một làng có dãy cây tala bao bọc). Lúc bấy giờ, Bà-la-môn Lohicca ở tại Sàlavatikà, một chỗ dân cư đông đúc, cây cỏ, ao nước, ngũ cốc phong phú, vốn là đất đai của vua, sau vua Pasenadi (Ba-tư-nặc) cấp cho để hưởng một phần lợi tức.

2. Lúc bấy giờ, Bà-la-môn Lohicca khởi lên ác kiến sau đây: "Ở đời, có vị Sa-môn hay Bà-la-môn chứng được thiện pháp, sau khi chúng được thiện pháp không nên nói cho người khác biết, vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được? Ví như một người sau khi cắt sợi dây cũ trói buộc, lại tự làm một sợi dây mới khác nữa. Ta nói sự thành tựu là ác pháp, tham pháp vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?".

3. Bà-la-môn Lohicca nghe đồn: "Sa-môn Gotama là Thích tử, xuất gia từ dòng họ Thích-ca, đang du hành tại nước Kosala, cùng với đại chúng Tỷ-kheo khoảng năm trăm vị, nay đã đến Sàlavatikà. Những tiếng đồn tốt đẹp sau đây được truyền đi về Sa-môn Gotama: "Ngài là bậc Thế Tôn, A-la-hán, Chánh Đẳng Giác, Minh Hạnh Túc, Thiện Thệ, Thế Gian Giải, Vô Thượng Sĩ, Điều Ngự Trượng Phu, Thiên Nhân Sư, Phật, Thế Tôn. Ngài đã tự chứng ngộ thế giới này với Thiên giới, Ma giới, Phạm thiên giới, với các chúng Sa-môn, Bà-la-môn, chư Thiên và loài Người, tự mình chứng ngộ với thắng trí rồi hiển thị cho mọi loài được biết. Ngài thuyết pháp, sơ thiện, trung thiện, hậu thiện, trình bày phạm hạnh hoàn toàn đầy đủ, thanh tịnh. Lành thay, nếu được yết kiến một vị A-la-hán như vậy".

4. Bà-la-môn Lohicca nói với Bhesika, người hớt tóc:

- "Này thiện nhân Bhesika, hãy đi đến Sa-môn Gotama thay mặt ta hỏi thăm Sa-môn Gotama có được ít bệnh ít não, khinh an, khí lực sung mãn, lạc trú không: "Tôn giả Gotama, Bà-la-môn Lohicca hỏi thăm Thế Tôn có được ít bệnh, ít não, khinh an, khí lực sung mãn, lạc trú không?" và nói thêm: "Mong Thế Tôn nhận lời của Bà-la-môn Lohicca sáng mai đến dùng cơm cùng với đại chúng Tỷ-kheo!".

5. - Tôn giả, xin vâng!

Bhesika người hớt tóc vâng theo lời của Bà-la-môn Lohicca đến với Thế Tôn và ngồi xuống một bên. Sau khi ngồi xuống một bên. Bhesika người hớt tóc bạch Thế Tôn:

- Bạch Thế Tôn, Bà-la-môn Lohicca hỏi thăm "Thế Tôn có được ít bệnh, ít não, khinh an, khí lực sung mãn, lạc trú không?" và nói thêm: "Mong đức Thế Tôn nhận lời mời của Bà-la-môn Lohicca sáng mai đến dùng cơm với đại chúng Tỷ-kheo".

Đức Thế Tôn im lặng nhận lời.

6. Bhesika, người hớt tóc, được biết Thế Tôn nhận lời, từ chỗ ngồi đứng dậy, đảnh lễ Thế Tôn, thân phía hữu hướng về Ngài, đi đến Bà-la-môn Lohicca, khi đã đến, liền thưa với Bà-la-môn Lohicca:

- Tôn giả, chúng tôi đã thay mặt Tôn giả thưa với Thế Tôn: "Bạch Thế Tôn, Bà-la-môn Lohicca hỏi thăm Thế Tôn Gotama có được ít bệnh, ít não, khinh an, khí lực sung mãn không" và nói thêm: "Mong Thế Tôn nhận lời của Bà-la-môn Lohicca sáng mai đến dùng cơm với đại chúng Tỷ-kheo" và Thế Tôn nhận lời.

7. Rồi Bà-la-môn, Lohicca sau khi đêm ấy đã mãn, làm sẵn sàng tại nhà các món ăn thượng vị, loại cứng và loại mềm rồi nói với Bhesika, người hớt tóc:

- Này thiện nhân Bhesika, hãy đi đến Sa-môn Gotama, khi đã đến, hãy báo giờ cho Sa-môn Gotama: "Bạch Thế Tôn, cơm đã sẵn sàng".

- Tôn giả, xin vâng!

Bhesika người hớt tóc, vâng theo lời của Bà-la-môn Lohicca, đi đến Thế Tôn, khi đã đến, liền đảnh lễ Thế Tôn và đứng một bên. Sau khi đứng một bên, Bhesika người hớt tóc báo thời giờ cho Sa-môn Gotama: "Bạch Thế Tôn, giờ đã đến, cơm đã sẵn sàng". Khi ấy Thế Tôn buổi sáng đắp y, đem theo y bát và cùng với chúng Tỷ-kheo đi đến Sàlavatikà.

8. Lúc bấy giờ, Bhesika, người hớt tóc, đang đi sau lưng Thế Tôn. Rồi Bhesika, người hớt tóc bạch Thế Tôn:

- Bà-la-môn Lohicca có khởi lên ác kiến sau đây: "Ở đời có vị Sa-môn hay Bà-la-môn chứng được thiện pháp, sau khi chúng được thiện pháp, không nên nói cho người khác biết, vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được? Ví như một người, sau khi cắt sợi dây trói buộc, lại tự làm một sợi dây mới khác nữa. Ta nói sự thành tựu là ác pháp, tham pháp. Vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được ?" Bạch Thế Tôn, lành thay, nếu Thế Tôn có thể giúp Bà-la-môn Lohicca trừ ác kiến ấy!

- Này Bhesika, việc ấy có thể được. Này Bhesika, việc ấy có thể được.

9. Lúc bấy giờ, Thế Tôn đến tại cư xá của Bà-la-môn Lohicca, khi đến liền ngồi trên chỗ đã soạn sẵn. Bà-la-môn Lohicca tự tay làm cho chúng Tỷ-kheo với đức Phật là vị cầm đầu, thỏa mãn với những món thượng vị, loại cứng loại mềm Bà-la-môn Lohicca, sau khi biết Thế Tôn dùng cơm xong, tay đã rời khỏi bát, liền lấy một ghế ngồi thấp khác và ngồi xuống một bên. Rồi Thế Tôn nói với Bà-la-môn Lohicca:

- Này Lohicca, có thật chăng, Ngươi khởi lên ác kiến như sau: "Ở đời, có vị Sa-môn hay Bà-la-môn chứng được thiện pháp, sau khi chứng được thiện pháp, không nên nói cho người khác biết, vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được? Ví như một người sau khi cắt sợi dây cũ trói buộc, lại tự làm một sợi dây mới khác nữa. Ta nói sự thành tựu ấy là ác pháp, tham pháp. Vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?"

- Vâng phải, Tôn giả Gotama!

10. - Này Lohicca, Ngươi nghĩ thế nào? Có phải Ngươi ở tại Sàlavatikà?

- Vâng phải, Tôn giả Gotama!

- Này Lohicca, nếu có người nói: "Bà-la-môn Lohicca sống ở Sàlavatikà. Hãy để Bà-la-môn Lohicca hưởng một mình mọi sản phẩm của Sàlavatikà, không cho một ai khác". Người nói vậy là người gây chướng ngại cho ai sống tùy thuộc vào Ngươi, có phải không?

- Tôn giả Gotama, là người gây chướng ngại.

- Này Lohicca, đã là người gây chướng ngại, người ấy có phải là người có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích cho những người kia?

- Tôn giả Gotama, là người không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích.

- Đã không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích, người ấy an trú từ tâm hay an trú hại tâm?

- Tôn giả Gotama, hại tâm!

- Khi an trú hại tâm, như vậy là chánh kiến hay tà kiến?

- Tôn giả Gotama, là tà kiến!

- Này Lohicca, Ta nói rằng, một người tà kiến sẽ sanh vào một trong hai ác thú sau đây: địa ngục hay súc sanh.

11. Này Lohicca, ngươi nghĩ thế nào? Có phải vua Pasenadi Kosala (Ba-tư-nặc-câu-tát-la) ở tại Kasi - Kosala (Ca-Thi Câu-tát-la) không?

- Tôn giả Gotama, vâng phải!

- Này Lohicca, nếu có người nói: "Vua Pasenadi Kosala sống ở Kasi-Kosala. Hãy để vua Pasenadi Kosala hưởng một mình mọi sản phẩm của Kasi - Kosala, không một ai khác". Người nói như vậy có phải là người gây chướng ngại cho những ai sống tùy thuộc vào vua Pasenadi Kosala, có phải không?

- Tôn giả Gotama, là người đã gây chướng ngại.

- Này Lohicca, đã là người gây chướng ngại, người ấy có phải là người có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích cho những người kia hay là người không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích cho những người kia.

- Tôn giả Gotama, là người không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích.

- Đã không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích, người ấy an trú từ tâm hay an trú hại tâm?

- Tôn giả Gotama, hại tâm!

- Khi an trú hại tâm, như vậy là chánh kiến hay tà kiến?

- Tôn giả Gotama, là tà kiến!

- Này Lohicca, ta nói rằng, một người tà kiến sẽ sanh vào một trong hai ác thú sau đây: địa ngục hay súc sanh.

12. Này Lohicca, nếu có người nói: "Bà-la-môn Lohicca sống ở Sàlavatikà. Hãy để Bà-la-môn Lohicca hưởng một mình mọi sản phẩm của Sàlavatikà, không cho một ai khác". Người nói vậy là người gây chướng ngại cho ai tùy thuộc vào Ngươi; đã là người gây chướng ngại, người ấy không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích, người ấy an trú hại tâm; và đã an trú hại tâm tức thuộc về tà kiến.

13. Đã như vậy, này Lohicca, nếu có người nói: "Ở đời có vị Sa-môn hay Bà-la-môn chứng được thiện pháp, sau khi chứng được thiện pháp, không nên nói cho người ta biết, vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?. Ví như một người cắt sợi dây cũ trói buộc, lại tự làm một sợi dây mới khác nữa. Ta nói sự thành tựu là ác pháp, tham pháp. Vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?". Người nói vậy gây chướng ngại cho những thiện nam tử đến với pháp luật do đức Như Lai giảng dạy và chứng được những quả vị thù thắng đặc biệt như Dự lưu, Nhất lai, Bất lai hay A-la-hán quả. Người nói vậy cũng gây chướng ngại cho những vị đang làm cho thành tựu sư tái sanh lên các cõi trời để được sanh làm chư Thiên. Đã là người gây chướng ngại, người ấy không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích, người ấy an trú hại tâm; và đã an trú hại tâm tức thuộc về tà kiến. Và này Lohicca, ta nói rằng một người có tà kiến sẽ sanh vào một trong hai ác thú sau đây: địa ngục hay súc sanh.

14. Này Lohicca, nếu có người nói: "Vua Pasenadi Kosala sống ở tại Kasi-Kosala. Hãy để vua Pasenadi Kosala hưởng một mình mọi sản phẩm của Kasi -Kosala, không cho một ai khác". Người nói vậy là người gây chướng ngại cho ai sống tùy thuộc vào người ấy. Đã là người gây nguy hiểm, người ấy không tha thiết đến hạnh phúc. Đã không tha thiết đến hạnh phúc, người ấy an trú hại tâm; và an trú hại tâm tức thuộc về tà kiến.

15. Đã như vậy, này Lohicca, nếu có ai nói: "Ở đời có vị Sa-môn chứng được thiện pháp, sau khi chứng được thiện pháp, không nên nói cho người khác, vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được? Ví như một người cắt sợi dây cũ trói buộc, lại tự làm một sợi dây mới khác nữa. Ta nói sự thành tựu ấy là ác pháp, tham pháp. Vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?" Người nói vậy gây chướng ngại cho người thiện nam tử đến với pháp luật do đức Như Lai giảng dạy và chứng được những quả vị thù thắng đặc biệt như Dự lưu, Nhất lai, Bất lai hay A-la-hán quả. Người nói vậy gây nguy hiểm cho những vị đang làm cho thành tựu sự tái sanh lên các cõi trời để được sanh làm chư Thiên. Đã là người gây chướng ngại, người ấy không có từ tâm nghĩ đến lợi ích, người ấy an trú hại tâm; và đã an trú hại tâm tức thuộc về tà kiến". Và này Lohicca, Ta nói rằng một người có tà kiến sẽ sanh vào một trong hai ác thú sau đây: địa ngục hay súc sinh.

16. Này Lohicca, ở đời có ba vị đạo sư đáng bị chỉ trích và ai chỉ trích đạo sư như vậy, sự chỉ trích của vị này chơn chánh, hợp pháp, không lỗi lầm. Thế nào là ba?

Này Lohicca, ở đời có một vị đạo sư không chứng mục đích của Sa-môn quả mà mọi người xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình hướng đến. Không chứng được mục đích Sa-môn quả, vị này thuyết pháp cho các đệ tử: "Như thế này là lợi ích cho các người! Như thế này là hạnh phúc cho các người!" Những đệ tử này không nghe lời dạy của vị ấy, không để tai ghi nhận, không trú tâm phát xuất từ hiểu biết và sống trái ngược với giáo pháp của vị bổn sư. Đạo sư như vậy cần phải được khiển trách: "Đại đức không chứng mục đích Sa-môn quả mà Đại đức xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình hướng đến. Không chứng được mục đích Sa-môn quả ấy, Đại đức thuyết pháp cho các đệ tử: "Như thế này là lợi ích cho các người. Như thế này là hạnh phúc cho các người". Những đệ tử này không nghe lời dạy của Đại đức, không để tai ghi nhận, không trú tâm phát xuất từ hiểu biết và sống trái ngược với giáo pháp của vị bổn sư. Như người tán tỉnh cô gái muốn xa mình, hay ôm hôn cô gái muốn né mặt mình, ta nói cử chỉ ấy là ác pháp, tham pháp vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?"

Này Lohicca, như vậy là hạng đạo sư thứ nhất đáng bị chỉ trích và ai chỉ trích đạo sư như vậy, sự chỉ trích của vị này chơn chánh, hợp pháp, không lỗi lầm.

17. Lại nữa, này Lohicca, ở đời có vị đạo sư không chứng mục đích của Sa-môn quả mà mọi người xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình hướng đến. Không chứng được mục đích Sa-môn quả ấy, vị này thuyết pháp cho các đệ tử: "Như thế này là lợi ích cho các người! Như thế này là hạnh phúc cho các người!". Những đệ tử này nghe lời dạy của vị ấy, lóng tai ghi nhận và trú tâm phát xuất từ hiểu biết, nhưng sống trái ngược với giáo pháp của vị bổn sư. Đạo sư như vậy cần phải được khiển trách; Đại đức không chứng mục đích Sa-môn quả mà Đại đức xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình hướng đến. Không chứng được mục đích Sa-môn quả ấy, Đại đức thuyết pháp cho các đệ tử: "Như thế này là lợi ích cho các người! Như thế này là hạnh phúc cho các người". Những đệ tử này nghe lời dạy của Đại đức, lóng tai ghi nhận, trú tâm phát xuất từ hiểu biết, nhưng sống trái ngược với giáo pháp của vị bổn sư. Như người bỏ ruộng dưa của mình mà nghĩ đến việc nhỏ cỏ cho ruộng của người. Ta nói cử chỉ ấy là ác pháp, tham pháp vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?" Này Lohicca, như vậy là hạng đạo sư thứ hai đáng bị chỉ trích và ai chỉ trích đạo sư như vậy, sự chỉ trích của vị này chơn chánh, hợp pháp, không sai lầm.

18. Lại nữa, này Lohicca, ở đời có vị đạo sư không chứng mục đích của Sa-môn quả mà mọi người xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình hướng đến. Không chứng được mục đích Sa-môn quả ấy, vị này thuyết pháp cho các đệ tử: "Như thế này là lợi ích cho các người! Như thế này là hạnh phúc cho các người". Những đệ tử này không nghe lời dạy của vị ấy, không lóng tai nghi nhận, không trú tâm xuất phát từ hiểu biết, sống trái ngược với giáo pháp của vị bổn sư. Đạo sư như vậy cần phải được khiển trách: "Đại đức không chứng được mục đích Sa-môn quả mà Đại đức xuất gia, từ bỏ gia đình, sống không gia đình, hướng đến. Không chứng được mục đích Sa-môn quả ấy, Đại đức thuyết pháp cho các đệ tử: "Như thế này là lợi ích cho các ngươi! Như thế này là hạnh phúc cho các ngươi!" Những đệ tử này nghe lời dạy của Đại đức, lóng tai ghi nhận, trú tâm phát xuất từ hiểu biết, sống trái ngược với giáo pháp của vị bổn sư. Như người cắt sợi dây cũ trói buộc, lại tự làm một sợi mới khác né mặt mình, ta nói cử chỉ ấy là ác pháp, tham pháp vì có ai lại làm giúp cho ai được?"

Này Lohicca, như vậy là hạng đạo sư thứ ba đáng bị chỉ trích và ai chỉ trích đạo sư như vậy, sự chỉ trích của vị này chơn chánh, hợp pháp, không lỗi lầm.

19. Khi nghe nói như vậy, Bà-la-môn Lohicca bạch đức Thế Tôn:

- Tôn giả Gotama, ở đời có vị đạo sư nào không đáng bị chỉ trích?

- Này Lohicca, ở đời có vị đạo sư không đáng bị chỉ trích.

- Tôn giả Gotama, ở đời, thế nào là đạo sư không đáng bị chỉ trích?

20. - Này Lohicca, ở đời, đức Như Lai xuất hiện, là bậc A-la-hán, Chánh Biến Tri, Minh Hạnh Túc, Thiện Thệ, Thế Gian Giải, Vô Thượng Sĩ, Điều Ngự Trượng Phu, Thiên Nhân Sư, Phật, Thế Tôn... (như kinh Sa-môn quả, đoạn kinh số 40 - 74, với những thay đổi cần thiết).

54. Khi quán tự thân đã xả ly năm triền cái ấy, hân hoan sanh, do hân hoan, nên hoan hỷ sanh; do tâm hoan hỷ, thân được khinh an, do thân khinh an, lạc thọ sanh, do lạc thọ, tâm được định tĩnh Tỷ-kheo ly dục, ly ác pháp, chứng và trú thiền thứ nhất, một trạng thái hỷ lạc do ly dục sanh, với tầm, với tứ. Tỷ-kheo thấm nhuần, tẩm ướt, làm cho sung mãn tràn đầy thân mình với hỷ lạc do ly dục sanh, không một chỗ nào trên toàn thân không hỷ lạc do ly dục sanh ấy thấm nhuần.

55. Này Lohicca, như một người hầu tắm lão luyện hay đệ tử người hầu tắm. Sau khi rắc bột tắm trong thau bằng đồng, liền nhồi bột ấy với nước, cục bột ấy thấm nhuần nước ướt nhào trộn với nước ướt, thấm ướt cả trong lẫn ngoài với nước, nhưng không chảy thành giọt - cũng vậy này Lohicca, Tỷ-kheo thấm nhuần, tẩm ướt, làm cho sung mãn, tràn đầy trên thân mình với hỷ lạc do ly dục sanh, không một chỗ nào trên toàn thân, không được hỷ lạc do ly dục sanh ấy thấm nhuần.

Này Lohicca, đệ tử của vị đạo sư nào chứng được quả vị thù thắng đặc biệt ấy, thời này Lohicca, vị đạo sư không đáng bị chỉ trích. Và ai chỉ trích một vị đạo sư như vậy, sự chỉ trích ấy sẽ không xác thực, không chân chánh, không hợp pháp, và có lỗi lầm.

56. Này Lohicca, lại nữa, Tỷ-kheo diệt tầm và tứ, chứng và trú thiền thứ hai, một trạng thái hỷ lạc do định sanh, không tầm, không tứ, nội tỉnh nhất tâm... thiền thứ ba... chứng và trú thiền thứ tư (như kinh Sa-môn quả, đoạn kinh số 77 - 84, với những thay đổi cần thiết).

Này Lohicca, đệ tử của vị đạo sư nào chứng được quả vị thù thắng đặc biệt ấy, thời này Lohicca, vị đạo sư như vậy không đáng bị chỉ trích, và ai chỉ trích một vị đạo sư như vậy, sự chỉ trích ấy sẽ không xác thật, không chân chánh, không hợp pháp, và có lỗi lầm.

62. Với tâm định tĩnh, thuần tịnh, không cấu nhiễm, không phiền não, nhu nhuyến, dễ sử dụng, vững chắc, bình thản như vậy, vị Tỷ-kheo dẫn tâm, hướng tâm đến lậu tận trí. Vị ấy biết như thật, "Đây là khổ"... không có đời sống nào khác nữa (như kinh Sa-môn quả, đoạn kinh số 97 - 98).

Này Lohicca, đệ tử của vị đạo sư nào chứng được quả vị thù thắng đặc biệt ấy, này Lohicca, vị đạo sư như vậy không đáng bị chỉ trích, và ai chỉ trích một đạo sư như vậy, sự chỉ trích ấy sẽ không xác thật, không chơn chánh, không hợp pháp, và có lỗi lầm!

78. Khi nghe như vậy, Bà-la-môn Lohicca bạch đức Thế Tôn:

- Như người nắm được tóc của một người sắp sửa rơi vào vực thẳm của địa ngục, nhắc bổng và đặt người ấy trên đất liền, cũng vậy Tôn giả Gotama đã nắm được tóc khi con sắp sửa rơi vào vực thẳm của địa ngục, nhắc bổng và đặt con trên đất liền. Thật vi diệu thay, Tôn giả Gotama! Thật vi diệu thay, Tôn giả Gotama! Tôn giả Gotama, như người dựng đứng lại những gì bị quăng ngã xuống, phơi bày ra những gì che kín, chỉ đường cho kẻ bị lạc hướng, đem đèn sáng vào trong bóng tối để những ai có mắt có thể thấy sắc. Cũng vậy Chánh pháp đã được đức Thế Tôn dùng nhiều phương tiện trình bày, nay con xin quy y đức Thế Tôn, quy y Pháp và quy y Tỷ-kheo Tăng. Mong đức Thế Tôn nhận con làm đệ tử từ nay trở đi cho đến mạng chung, con trọn đời quy ngưỡng.

Hòa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt

[Bản dịch Anh ngữ]

12. Lohicca Sutta
To Lohicca
translated by Bhikkhu Thanissaro

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks -- approximately 500 monks in all -- and arrived at Salavatika. Now at that time the brahmin Lohicca was reigning with feudatory rights over Salavatika -- together with its wealth, grass, timber, and grain -- through a royal grant bestowed by King Pasenadi Kosala. And at that time an evil viewpoint to this effect had arisen to him: "Suppose that a priest or contemplative were to arrive at a skillful doctrine. Having arrived at a skillful doctrine, he should not declare it to anyone else, for what can one person do for another? It would be just the same as if, having cut through an old bond, one were to make another new bond. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?"

Then Lohicca heard it said, "Gotama the contemplative -- the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan -- on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks -- approximately 500 monks in all -- has arrived at Salavatika. And of that Master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: 'He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, and rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge and conduct, well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human and divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known -- having realized it through direct knowledge -- this world with its devas, maras, and brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives and priests, their rulers and common people; has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.'"

So Lohicca said to Rosika the barber: "Come, dear Rosika. Go to Gotama the contemplative and, on arrival, ask whether he is free from illness and affliction, is carefree, strong, and living in comfort, saying: 'The brahmin Lohicca, Master Gotama, asks whether you are free from illness and affliction, are carefree, strong, and living in comfort.' And then say: 'May Master Gotama, together with the community of monks, consent to tomorrow's meal with the brahmin Lohicca.'"

Responding, "As you say, sir," to the brahmin Lohicca, Rosika the barber went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, bowing down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One, "The brahmin Lohicca, lord, asks whether the Blessed One is free from illness and affliction, is carefree, strong, and living in comfort. And he says, 'May the Blessed One, together with the community of monks, consent to tomorrow's meal with the brahmin Lohicca.'" The Blessed One consented through silence.

Then Rosika the barber, understanding the Blessed One's consent, rose from his seat, bowed down to the Blessed One, circumambulated him -- keeping him to his right -- and returned to the brahmin Lohicca. On arrival he said to him, "I have informed the Blessed One of your words, [saying,] 'The brahmin Lohicca, lord, asks whether the Blessed One is free from illness and affliction, is carefree, strong, and living in comfort. And he says, "May the Blessed One, together with the community of monks, consent to tomorrow's meal with the brahmin Lohicca."' And the Blessed One has consented."

Then, as the night was ending, the brahmin Lohicca had choice staple and non-staple foods prepared in his own home and then said to Rosika the barber, "Come, dear Rosika. Go to Gotama the contemplative and on arrival announce the time, [saying,] 'It is time, Master Gotama. The meal is ready.'"

Responding, "As you say, sir," to the brahmin Lohicca, Rosika the barber went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, bowing down to him, stood to one side. As he was standing there, he announced the time, [saying,] "It is time, lord. The meal is ready."

Then the Blessed One, having put on his robes early in the morning, carrying his bowl and outer robe, went together with a community of monks to Salavatika. Meanwhile, Rosika the barber was following right behind the Blessed One and said to him, "Lord, an evil viewpoint to this effect has arisen to the brahmin Lohicca: 'Suppose that a priest or contemplative were to arrive at a skillful doctrine. Having arrived at a skillful doctrine, he should not declare it to anyone else, for what can one person do for another? It would be just the same as if, having cut through an old bond, one were to make another new bond. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?' It would be good if the Blessed One would extract the brahmin Lohicca from this evil viewpoint."

"Perhaps that will be, Rosika. Perhaps that will be."

Then the Blessed One went to the brahmin Lohicca's home. On arrival, he sat down on a seat made ready. The brahmin Lohicca, with his own hand, served and satisfied the Blessed One and the community of monks with choice staple and non-staple foods. Then, when the Blessed One had eaten and had removed his hand from his bowl, the brahmin Lohicca took a lower seat and sat down to one side. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him, "Is it true, Lohicca, that an evil viewpoint to this effect has arisen to you: 'Suppose that a priest or contemplative were to arrive at a skillful doctrine. Having arrived at a skillful doctrine, he should not declare it to anyone else, for what can one person do for another? It would be just the same as if, having cut through an old bond, one were to make another new bond. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?'?"

"Yes, Master Gotama."

"What do you think, Lohicca. Don't you reign over Salavatika?"

"Yes, Master Gotama."

"Now, suppose someone were to say, 'The brahmin Lohicca reigns over Salavatika. He alone should consume the fruits and revenues of Salavatika, and not share them with others.' Would someone speaking in this way be a creator of obstacles for your subjects, or would he not?"

"He would be a creator of obstacles, Master Gotama."

"And, being a creator of obstacles, would he be sympathetic for their welfare or not?"

"He would not be sympathetic for their welfare, Master Gotama."

"And in one not sympathetic for their welfare, would his mind be established in good will for them, or in animosity?"

"In animosity, Master Gotama."

"When the mind is established in animosity, is there wrong view or right view?"

"Wrong view, Master Gotama."

"Now, for one of wrong view, Lohicca, I tell you, there is one of two destinations: either hell or the animal womb.

"What do you think, Lohicca. Doesn't King Pasenadi Kosala reign over Kasi and Kosala?"

"Yes, Master Gotama."

"Now, suppose someone were to say, 'King Pasenadi Kosala reigns over Kasi and Kosala. He alone should consume the fruits and revenues of Kasi and Kosala, and not share them with others.' Would someone speaking in this way be a creator of obstacles for King Pasenadi's subjects -- you and others -- or would he not?"

"He would be a creator of obstacles, Master Gotama."

"And, being a creator of obstacles, would he be sympathetic for their welfare or not?"

"He would not be sympathetic for their welfare, Master Gotama."

"And in one not sympathetic for their welfare, would his mind be established in good will for them, or in animosity?"

"In animosity, Master Gotama."

"When the mind is established in animosity, is there wrong view or right view?"

"Wrong view, Master Gotama."

"Now, for one of wrong view, Lohicca, I tell you, there is one of two destinations: either hell or the animal womb.

"So then, Lohicca, if anyone were to say, 'The brahmin Lohicca reigns over Salavatika. He alone should consume the fruits and revenues of Salavatika, and not share them with others,' he, speaking in this way, would be a creator of obstacles for your subjects. Being a creator of obstacles, he would not be sympathetic for their welfare. In one not sympathetic for their welfare, the mind would be established in animosity for them. When the mind is established in animosity, there is wrong view. For one of wrong view, I tell you, there is one of two destinations: either hell or the animal womb. In the same way, if anyone were to say, 'Suppose that a priest or contemplative were to arrive at a skillful doctrine. Having arrived at a skillful doctrine, he should not declare it to anyone else, for what can one person do for another? It would be just the same as if, having cut through an old bond, one were to make another new bond. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?' -- he, speaking in this way, would be a creator of obstacles for those children of good family who, coming to the doctrine and discipline revealed by the Tathagata, attain the sort of grand distinction where they attain the fruit of stream-entry, the fruit of once-returning, the fruit of non-returning, the fruit of arahantship; and for those who ripen deva wombs for the sake of bringing about the deva state. Being a creator of obstacles, he would not be sympathetic for their welfare. In one not sympathetic for their welfare, the mind would be established in animosity for them. When the mind is established in animosity, there is wrong view. For one of wrong view, I tell you, there is one of two destinations: either hell or the animal womb.

"And if anyone were to say, 'King Pasenadi Kosala reigns over Kasi and Kosala. He alone should consume the fruits and revenues of Kasi and Kosala, and not share them with others,' he, speaking in this way, would be a creator of obstacles for King Pasenadi's subjects -- you and others. Being a creator of obstacles, he would not be sympathetic for their welfare. In one not sympathetic for their welfare, the mind would be established in animosity for them. When the mind is established in animosity, there is wrong view. For one of wrong view, I tell you, there is one of two destinations: either hell or the animal womb. In the same way, if anyone were to say, 'Suppose that a priest or contemplative were to arrive at a skillful doctrine. Having arrived at a skillful doctrine, he should not declare it to anyone else, for what can one person do for another? It would be just the same as if, having cut through an old bond, one were to make another new bond. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?' -- he, speaking in this way, would be a creator of obstacles for those children of good family who, coming to the doctrine and discipline revealed by the Tathagata, attain the sort of grand distinction where they attain the fruit of stream-entry, the fruit of once-returning, the fruit of non-returning, the fruit of arahantship; and also for those who ripen deva wombs for the sake of bringing about the deva state. Being a creator of obstacles, he would not be sympathetic for their welfare. In one not sympathetic for their welfare, the mind would be established in animosity for them. When the mind is established in animosity, there is wrong view. For one of wrong view, I tell you, there is one of two destinations: either hell or the animal womb.

"Lohicca, there are these three sorts of teacher who are worthy of criticism in the world, and when anyone criticizes these sorts of teachers, the criticism is true, factual, righteous, and unblameworthy. Which three?

"There is the case where a certain teacher has not attained the goal of the contemplative life for which one goes forth from the home life into homelessness. He, not having attained that goal of the contemplative life, teaches his disciples, 'This is for your welfare. This is for your happiness.' His disciples don't listen, don't lend ear, don't put forth an intent for gnosis. They practice in a way deviating from the teacher's instructions. He should be criticized, saying, 'You, venerable sir, have not attained the goal of the contemplative life for which one goes forth from the home life into homelessness. Not having attained that goal of the contemplative life, you teach your disciples, "This is for your welfare. This is for your happiness." Your disciples don't listen, don't lend ear, don't put forth an intent for gnosis, and practice in a way deviating from the teacher's instructions. It's just as if a man were to pursue [a woman] who pulls away, or to embrace one who turns her back. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?' This is the first teacher who is worthy of criticism in the world, and when anyone criticizes this sort of teacher, the criticism is true, factual, righteous, and unblameworthy.

"Then there is the case where a certain teacher has not attained the goal of the contemplative life for which one goes forth from the home life into homelessness. He, not having attained that goal of the contemplative life, teaches his disciples, 'This is for your welfare. This is for your happiness.' His disciples listen, lend ear, put forth an intent for gnosis, and practice in a way not deviating from the teacher's instructions. He should be criticized, saying, 'You, venerable sir, have not attained the goal of the contemplative life for which one goes forth from the home life into homelessness. Not having attained that goal of the contemplative life, you teach your disciples, "This is for your welfare. This is for your happiness." Your disciples listen, lend ear, put forth an intent for gnosis, and practice in a way not deviating from the teacher's instructions. It's just as if a man, neglecting his own field, were to imagine that another's field should be weeded. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?' This is the second teacher who is worthy of criticism in the world, and when anyone criticizes this sort of teacher, the criticism is true, factual, righteous, and unblameworthy.

"Then there is the case where a certain teacher has attained the goal of the contemplative life for which one goes forth from the home life into homelessness. He, having attained that goal of the contemplative life, teaches his disciples, 'This is for your welfare. This is for your happiness.' His disciples don't listen, don't lend ear, don't put forth an intent for gnosis. They practice in a way deviating from the teacher's instructions. He should be criticized, saying, 'You, venerable sir, have attained the goal of the contemplative life for which one goes forth from the home life into homelessness. Having attained that goal of the contemplative life, you teach your disciples, "This is for your welfare. This is for your happiness." Your disciples don't listen, don't lend ear, don't put forth an intent for gnosis, and practice in a way deviating from the teacher's instructions. It's just as if, having cut through an old bond, one were to make another new bond. I say that such a thing is an evil, greedy deed, for what can one person do for another?' This is the third teacher who is worthy of criticism in the world, and when anyone criticizes this sort of teacher, the criticism is true, factual, righteous, and unblameworthy."

When this was said, the brahmin Lohicca said to the Blessed One, "But is there, Master Gotama, any teacher who is not worthy of criticism in the world?"

"There is, Lohicca, a teacher who is not worthy of criticism in the world."

"But which teacher, Master Gotama, is not worthy of criticism in the world?"

"There is the case, Lohicca, where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.

"A householder or householder's son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: 'Household life is confining, a dusty path. The life gone forth is like the open air. It is not easy living at home to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure, like a polished shell. What if I were to shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from the household life into homelessness?'

"So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.

"When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the rules of the monastic code, seeing danger in the slightest faults. Consummate in his virtue, he guards the doors of his senses, is possessed of mindfulness and alertness, and is content [for details, see DN 2]...

(Abandoning the Hindrances)
"Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and alertness, and this noble contentment, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a wilderness, the shade of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a forest grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning from his alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.

"Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness devoid of sloth and drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light. He cleanses his mind of sloth and drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind of restlessness and anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his mind of uncertainty.

"Suppose that a man, taking a loan, invests it in his business affairs. His business affairs succeed. He repays his old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining his wife. The thought would occur to him, 'Before, taking a loan, I invested it in my business affairs. Now my business affairs have succeeded. I have repaid my old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining my wife.' Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

"Now suppose that a man falls sick -- in pain and seriously ill. He does not enjoy his meals, and there is no strength in his body. As time passes, he eventually recovers from that sickness. He enjoys his meals and there is strength in his body. The thought would occur to him, 'Before, I was sick...Now I am recovered from that sickness. I enjoy my meals and there is strength in my body.' Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

"Now suppose that a man is bound in prison. As time passes, he eventually is released from that bondage, safe and sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to him, 'Before, I was bound in prison. Now I am released from that bondage, safe and sound, with no loss of my property.' Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

"Now suppose that a man is a slave, subject to others, not subject to himself, unable to go where he likes. As time passes, he eventually is released from that slavery, subject to himself, not subject to others, freed, able to go where he likes. The thought would occur to him, 'Before, I was a slave...Now I am released from that slavery, subject to myself, not subject to others, freed, able to go where I like.' Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

"Now suppose that a man, carrying money and goods, is traveling by a road through desolate country. As time passes, he eventually emerges from that desolate country, safe and sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to him, 'Before, carrying money and goods, I was traveling by a road through desolate country. Now I have emerged from that desolate country, safe and sound, with no loss of my property.' Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

"In the same way, when these five hindrances are not abandoned in himself, the monk regards it as a debt, a sickness, a prison, slavery, a road through desolate country. But when these five hindrances are abandoned in himself, he regards it as unindebtedness, good health, release from prison, freedom, a place of security. Seeing that they have been abandoned within him, he becomes glad. Glad, he becomes enraptured. Enraptured, his body grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he is sensitive to pleasure. Feeling pleasure, his mind becomes concentrated.

(The Four Jhanas)
"Quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. Just as if a skilled bathman or bathman's apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his ball of bath powder -- saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and without -- would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates...this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

"Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thought and evaluation, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, one-pointedness of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation -- internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. Just like a lake with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from the east, west, north, or south, and with the skies supplying abundant showers time and again, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates...this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

"And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, mindful and alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters and remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, 'Equanimous and mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. Just as in a lotus pond, some of the lotuses, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates...this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

"And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain -- as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress -- he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(Insight Knowledge)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He discerns: 'This body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and bound up here.' Just as if there were a beautiful beryl gem of the purest water -- eight faceted, well polished, clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects, and going through the middle of it was a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread -- and a man with good eyesight, taking it in his hand, were to reflect on it thus: 'This is a beautiful beryl gem of the purest water, eight faceted, well polished, clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects. And this, going through the middle of it, is a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.' In the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability -- the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He discerns: 'This body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and bound up here.' When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(The Mind-made Body)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made of the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties. Just as if a man were to draw a reed from its sheath. The thought would occur to him: 'This is the sheath, this is the reed. The sheath is one thing, the reed another, but the reed has been drawn out from the sheath.' Or as if a man were to draw a sword from its scabbard. The thought would occur to him: 'This is the sword, this is the scabbard. The sword is one thing, the scabbard another, but the sword has been drawn out from the scabbard.' Or as if a man were to pull a snake out from its slough. The thought would occur to him: 'This is the snake, this is the slough. The snake is one thing, the slough another, but the snake has been pulled out from the slough.' In the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made of the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(Supranormal Powers)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers. He wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds. Just as a skilled potter or his assistant could craft from well-prepared clay whatever kind of pottery vessel he likes, or as a skilled ivory-carver or his assistant could craft from well-prepared ivory any kind of ivory-work he likes, or as a skilled goldsmith or his assistant could craft from well-prepared gold any kind of gold article he likes; in the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability -- the monk directs and inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers...He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(Clairaudience)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element. He hears -- by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human -- both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far. Just as if a man traveling along a highway were to hear the sounds of kettledrums, small drums, conchs, cymbals, and tom-toms. He would know, 'That is the sound of kettledrums, that is the sound of small drums, that is the sound of conchs, that is the sound of cymbals, and that is the sound of tom-toms.' In the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability -- the monk directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element. He hears -- by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human -- both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(Mind Reading)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with aversion, and a mind without aversion as a mind without aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind [one that is not at the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He discerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. Just as if a young woman -- or man -- fond of ornaments, examining the reflection of her own face in a bright mirror or a bowl of clear water would know 'blemished' if it were blemished, or 'unblemished' if it were not. In the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability -- the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of the awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion...a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(Recollection of Past Lives)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives (lit: previous homes). He recollects his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and expansion, [recollecting], 'There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.' Thus he recollects his manifold past lives in their modes and details. Just as if a man were to go from his home village to another village, and then from that village to yet another village, and then from that village back to his home village. The thought would occur to him, 'I went from my home village to that village over there. There I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, talked in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I went to that village over there, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, talked in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I came back home.' In the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability -- the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives...in their modes and details. When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(The Passing Away and Re-appearance of Beings)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees -- by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human -- beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: 'These beings -- who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views -- with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings -- who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views -- with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.' Thus -- by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human -- he sees beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. Just as if there were a tall building in the central square [of a town], and a man with good eyesight standing on top of it were to see people entering a house, leaving it, walking along the street, and sitting in the central square. The thought would occur to him, 'These people are entering a house, leaving it, walking along the streets, and sitting in the central square.' In the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability -- the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees -- by means of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human -- beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma...When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy.

(The Ending of Mental Fermentations)
"With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it is actually present, that 'This is stress...This is the origination of stress...This is the cessation of stress...This is the way leading to the cessation of stress...These are mental fermentations...This is the origination of fermentations...This is the cessation of fermentations...This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.' His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, 'Released.' He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.' Just as if there were a pool of water in a mountain glen -- clear, limpid, and unsullied -- where a man with good eyesight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting, and it would occur to him, 'This pool of water is clear, limpid, and unsullied. Here are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.' In the same way -- with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability -- the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it is actually present, that 'This is stress...This is the origination of stress...This is the cessation of stress...This is the way leading to the cessation of stress...These are mental fermentations...This is the origination of fermentations...This is the cessation of fermentations...This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.' His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, 'Released.' He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.' When a disciple of a teacher attains this sort of grand distinction, Lohicca, that is a teacher not worthy of criticism in the world, and if anyone were to criticize this sort of teacher, the criticism would be false, unfactual, unrighteous, and blameworthy."

When this was said, the brahmin Lohicca said to the Blessed One: "Master Gotama, it's as if a man, having seized by the hair another man who was falling into the pit of hell, were to pull him up and set him on firm ground. In the same way, Master Gotama has pulled me up as I was falling into the pit of hell and has set me on firm ground. Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what had been overturned, were to reveal what was hidden, were to show the way to one who was lost, or were to hold up a lamp in the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way Master Gotama has -- through many lines of reasoning -- made the Dhamma clear. I go to Master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the community of monks. May Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

[Vietnamese version]

Source: Access-to-Insight, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/digha/dn12.html
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