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22/09/201007:54(Xem: 1593)
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La.A net (for catching birds), gauze, openwork; sieve; to arrange in order.

La hán.Arhat (S). Worthy, worshipful, the saint, or perfect man of Hìnayàna.

La hầu.Ràhu (S). Demon, king of asuras.

La hầu A tu la.Ràhu Atula (S). A demon.

La hầu la.Ràhula (S). Son and one of the ten great disciples of the Buddha.

La hầu la tôn giả.Ràhulabhadra (S). 16th Indian patriarch.

La sát.Ràksasas, ràksasi (S). Malignant spirits, malevolent demons.

La thập.Kumàrajìva (S). Famous Indian monk, translator of sùtras.

La trai.To collect contributions of food, an almsbowl.

Lạc (Nhạc, nhạo).Prti (S). Music; joy, joyful, glad, rejoice; also to find joy in, enjoy.

Lạc bang.The joyful country, the paradise of the West

Lạc biến hóa thiên.Nirmànarati (S). The fifth of the six desire-heavens, where any form of joy is attainable at will.

Lạc căn.The organs of pleasure - eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body.

Lạc dục.Desire for the pleasant, or pleasure.

Lạc nhân.Causes of pleasure.

Lạc pháp.Delight in Buddha-truth, or the religion.

Lạc quả.Joyful fruit, i.e. nirvàna.

Lạc tưởng.Perception of pleasure.

Lạc thiên, lạc quan.Optimistic.

Lạc thụ.The sensation, or perception of pleasure.

Lạc thổ.A happy land.

Lạc thuyết.Joy in preaching, or telling the way of salvation

Lạc thuyết biện tài.Preaching with eloquence.

Lam phong.Very strong wind.

Lang tích sơn.Xem kê túc sơn.

Lánh.To avoid, shun; to keep out of.

Lánh tục.Naiskramya (S). Giving up the world and leading a holy life. To avoid, shun the world; to live the life of a recluse, of a hermit.

Lão.Jarà (S). Old, old age.

Lão khổ.One of the four sufferings, that of old age.

Lão túc.Sthavira (S). An old man, virtuous elder; great scholar

Lão tử.Jaràmarana (S). Decrepitude and death; one of the twelve nidànas.

Lạp.Dried flesh; the end of the year; a year; a monastic year, i.e. the end of the annual summer retreat, also calles giới lạp, hạ lạp, pháp lạc.

Lạp bát.The 8th day of the 12th month, the day of the Buddha's enlightenment.

Lạt ma.Lama (Tib).

Lạp Phật.The offerings to Buddha after the summer retreat, maintained on the 15th day of the 7th month.

Lạp thứ.In order of years, i.e. of ordination.

Lăng già.Lanka (S). Lanka mount.

Lăng giá đảo, Sư tử quốc đảo.Lankàdvipa, Simhaladvipa (S). Actual Sri Lanka.

Lăng già kinh.Lankàvatàra-sùtra (S)

Lăng nghiêm kinh.Suramgama-sùtra (S)

Lâm.To regard with kindness; approach on the brink of, about to; whilst. Lâm chung. Approach the end, dying.

Lâm Tế.A monastery during the Đường dynasty, in Chân Định phủ, from which the founder of Lâm Tế school derived his title, his name was Nghĩa Huyền.

Lâm tì ni.Lumbini (S). Lumbini Park, birth place of Prince Siddhartha.

Lầm lạc.Moha (S). Delusion, stupidity, infatuation.

Lẫn lộn.Viparyàsa (S). Contradictory mind, wrong state, reversal.

Lậu.Asràva (S). Flowing, running, discharge; distress, pain, affliction; passions and their filth; impure efflux from the mind. Cankers, mental intoxicants.

Lậu giới.To make a leak in the commandments, i.e. break them.

Lậu hoặc.Xem lậu.

Lậu nghiệp.The deeds of the sinner in the stream of transmigration, which produce his karma.

Lậu tận.Asràvaksaya (S). The end of the passions, or the exhaustion of the stream of transmigration.

Lậu tận chứng minh.The assurance or realization that the stream of transmigration is ended and nirvàna attained.

Lậu tận minh.The realization that the stream of transmigration is ended.

Lậu tận thông.Asràvaksaya (S) The supernatural insight into the ending of the stream of transmigration; one of the six abhijnànas lục thông. Extinction of the cankers.

Lậu tận trí.The wisdom of the arhat.

Lậu tận tỳ kheo.The monk who has ended the stream of transmigration, the arhat.

Lậu tận ý giải.The passions ended and the mind freed, the state of the arhat.

Lậu vô lậu.Transmigration and nirvàna.

Lễ.Worship, offerings, rites; ritual, ceremonial, decorum, courtesy, etiquette.

Lễ bái.Namasyà (S). To worship, to render homage to deities. Veneration.

Lễ bái đường.Church, chapel.

Lễ giáo.Good manners, decorum; education.

Lễ kính.To worship, reverence, pay respect.

Lễ Phật.To worship Buddhas; to bow to the Buddhas.

Lễ sám.Worship and repentance, penitential offerings.

Lịch.To pass through, over or to; successive; separated; calender, astronomical calculations.

Lịch duyên đối cảnh.Passing circumstances and the objects of the senses.

Lịch đại.Through many generations; generation after generation.

Lịch kiếp.To pass through a kalpa; in the course of a kalpa; through many existences, many lives.

Liên.Pundarika (S). The lotus, especially the white lotus Nymphoea alna; Padma (S). Especially the Nelumbium speciosum; Utpala (S). The Nymphoea coerulca, the blue lotus; Kumuda (S). Nymphoea esculenta, white lotus, or N. rubra, red lotus; Nilotpala (S). N. cyanea, a blue lotus. The first four are called white, red, blue, and yellow lotuses.

Liên bang.The lotus land, the Pure Land of Amitàbha.

Liên cung.Padmavimàna (S). Lotus-palace, the Pure Land of the Sambhogakàya; also the eight-leaved lotus of the heart.

Liên hà.Nairanjanà (S). Name of river. Also Ni liên thiền, Ni liên hà.

Liên hoa.Padma (S). The lotus flower. Also hoa sen.

Liên hoa kinh.Saddharma-pundarìka-sùtra (S). Lotus sùtra. Also Kinh Pháp hoa, kinh Diệu pháp Liên hoa.

Liên Hoa Sinh.Padma-Sambhava (S)

Liên hoa quốc.The pure-land of every Buddha, the land of his enjoyment.

Liên hoa tạng thế giới.The lotus world or universe of each Buddha for his sambhogakàya.

Liên hoa thủ Bồ tát.Padmapàni (S). Quán âm holding a lotus flower.

Liên hoa tọa.Padmàsana (S). To sit with crossed legs; also a lotus throne.

Liên hữu.Mutual protectors, or helpers of the Lotus-sect, i.e. members.

Liên môn.The Lotus-sect.

Liên nhãn.The eye of the blue lotus, i.e. the wonderful eye of Buddha.

Liên sát.Lotus-ksetra, or lotus-land, the paradise of Amitàbha.

Liên thai.The Lotus-womb in which the believers of Amitàbha are born into his paradise.

Liên tòa, tòa sen.The lotus throne on which are seated the images; Buddha-throne.

Liên tông.The Lotus-sect founded by Hui-yuan Huệ Viễn.

Liên tử.Lotus seeds.

Liên xã, Bạch liên xã.The white lotus sect, idem Liên tông.

Liễu.To end, see through, understand, thoroughly know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final.

Liễu đạt.Thorough penetration, clear undersstanding.

Liễu liễu kiến.The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.

Liễu nghĩa.Revelation of the whole meaning. Bất liễu nghĩa is partial reveletion adapted (phương tiện) to the capacity of the hearers.

Liễu nghĩa kinh.The sùtras containing the whole truth.

Liễu ngộ.Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension.

Liễu nhân.A revealing cause. Sinh nhân: a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; Liễu nhân: a revealing cause, e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom.

Liễu nhân Phật tính.The second of the three Buddha-nature "causes", i.e. Chính nhân Phật tính is the Chân như as direct cause of attaining the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the pháp thân; Liễu nhân Phật tính is the revealing or enlightening cause, associated ăith the Buddha-wisdom; Duyên nhân Phật tính is the environment cause, e.g. his goodness and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation.

Liễu tri.Parijnà (S). Thorough knowledge. Full understanding.

Linh, kiền trùy.Ghantà (S). Small bell.

Linh miếu.Caitya (S). Sepulchral monument, shrine.

Linh sơn.Xem Linh thứu sơn.

Linh thụ, ưu đàm.Udumbara (S). The glomarous fig tree.

Linh thụy hoa, Ưu đàm bát hoa.Udumbara (S)

Linh thứu sơn, Kỳ xà quật, Xà quật, Kỳ sơn.Grdhrakùta (S). Vulture peak mount.

Lo âu.Kukrtya (S). Worry.

Loạn.Disturb, perturb, confusion, disorder, rebellion.

Loạn hạnh.Disorderly conduct.

Loạn tăng.A disorderly monk.

Loạn tâm.A perturbed or confused mind, to disturb or unsettle the mind.

Loạn thiện.To disturb the good; confound goodness of those who worship, etc with divides mind.

Loạn tưởng.To think confusedly, or improperly.

Long.Nàga (S). Dragon, dragon-like, imperial. (Nàga: snake, serpent, elephant.)

Long châu.Dragon-pearl; pearl below the dragon's jaw.

Long chủng thượng tôn vương Phật.The Buddha of the race of honourable dragon-kings, a title of Manjusri.

Long chương.Dragon books, i.e. the sùtras, so called because the Sanskrit writings seemed to resemble the forms of snakes and dragons.

Long cung.Dragon palace, palace of the dragon-kings.

Long hoa hội.The assembly of Maitreya Buddha for preaching the Buddha-truth.

Long hoa thụ.Nàga-puspa (S). The dragon-flower-tree, which will be the bodhi-tree of Maitreya Buddha Phật Di lặc.

Long khám.Dragon coffins, i.e.those for monks.

Long Mãnh.Xem Long thụ.

Long nữ.Nàgakanyà (S), A naga-maiden.

Long phấn tấn tam muội.A samàdhi powerful like the dragon; abstract meditation which results in great spiritual power.

Long quân.Na tiên. Nàgasena (S)

Long tạng.The dragon-treasury or library.

Long thang.Dragon soup, a purgative concocted of human and animal urine and excrement.

Long thần.A dragon-god, or spirit.

Long thiên.Dragon-kings and devas; also Nàgàrjuna and Vasubandhu.

Long thiên bát bộ.Nàgas, devas, raksasas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kinnaras, and maho-ragas.

Long thụ (thọ), Long Mãnh.Nàgàrjuna (S). 14th ndian patriarch.

Long trí.Nàgabodhi (S).

Long tượng.Dragon elephant, or dragon and elephant, i.e. great saints, bodhisattvas, Buddhas.

Long vương.Nàgaràja (S). Dragon king, a title for the tutelary deity of a lake, river, sea and other places.

Lòng tin.Sràddhà (S). Faith, devotion.

Lô ca da để ca, Lộ già da đà.Loka-yatika (S). Name of a heretic sect.

Lô ca na tha.Lokanàtha (S). Thế tôn.

Lô ca phại.Lokavit (S). Thế gian giải.

Lộc dã viên.Mrganika (S). Deer park. Also lộc uyển, vườn nai.

Lộc mẫu, Tỳ xá khư.Visàkhà (S). Name.

Lộc trượng.Migalandika (S). Name.

Lộc túc vương.Kajmàsapàda (S).

Lộc vương thành.Sàrnàth (S). Actual name of Rsipatana.

Lộc xa.Deer-cart.

Lời nói.Vàc, vàcà (S). Speech, words. Also ngữ.

Lợi.Patu, tìksna (S). Sharp, keen, clever; profitable, beneficial; gain, advantage, interest.

Lợi căn.Sharpness, cleverness, intelligence, natural powers, endowment.

Lợi dưỡng.To nourish oneself by gain; gain; avarice.

Lợi dưỡng phược.The bond of selfish greed, one of the two bonds, gain and fame.

Lợi hành nhiếp.Sangraha-vastu (S). The drawing of all beings to Buddhism through blessing them by deed, word, and will.

Lợi ích.Benefit, aid, to bless

Lợi ích nhân thiên.Benefit to men and devas.

Lợi kiếm.A sharp sword, used figuratively for Amitàbha, and Manjusri, indicating wisdom, discrimination, or power pover evil.

Lợi lạc.Blessing and joy.

Lợi lạc hữu tình.To bless and give joy to the living or sentient.

Lợi nhân.To benefit or profit men.

Lợi sinh.Xem lợi lạc hữu tình. Sinh is chúng sinh all the living.

Lợi sử.The sharp or clever envoy, i.e. the chief illusion of regarding the ego and its experiences, and ideas as real, one of the five chief illusions.

Lợi tha.Parahita (S). Welfare for others. The bodhisattva-mind is Tự lợi lợi tha, to improve oneself for the purpose of improving or benefiting others. Welfare for others.

Lợi trí.Pàtava (S). Keen intelligence, wisdom, discrimination.

Lợi vật.Xem lợi tha. Vật: the being.

Luân.Cakra (S). Wheel, disc, rotation, to revolve. The three wheels are Hoặc Nghiệp Khổ illusion, karma, suffering, in constant revolution. The five are earth, water, fire, wind and space; the earth rests on revolving spheres of water, fire, wind and space. The nine are seen on the tops of pagodas.

Luân bảo.A cakravartin's wheel, i.e. either gold, silver, copper or iron manifesting his rank and power.

Luân chuyển.Samsàra (S). The turning of the wheel, to revolve, i.e. transmigration in the six ways, the wheel of transmigration; the round of existence.

Luân hỏa.Alàtacakra (S). Xem hỏa luân.

Luân hồi.Samsàra (S). Transmigration of souls; metempsychosis. Round of rebirths.

Luân vương.Cakravartin (S). A ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction; an emperor, a sovereign ofvthe world, a supreme ruler.

Luận.Sàstra, abhidharma, upadesa (S). To discourse upon, discuss, reason over; discourses, discussions, or treatises on dogma, philosophy, discipline, etc.

Luận gia.Xem luận sư.

Luận giải.Arthakarthà (S). Explanation, commentary. Also bình luận.

Luận nghị kinh.Upadesa (S). Dogmatic treatises, the twelfth and last section of the Canon. Also ưu bà đề xá.

Luận sư.Sàstra-writer. or interpreters, philosophers.

Luận tạng.Abhidharma-pitaka (S)> Thesaurus of discussions or discourses. The basket of philosophical treatises.

Luận tông.The Madhyamaka school of the Tam luận; also the Abhidharma or Sàstra school.

Luật.Vinaya, pratimoksa, sìla, upalaksa (S). The discipline, monastic rules.

Luật hạnh.The discipline in practice, to act according to the rules.

Luật nghi.Rules and ceremonies, an intuitive apprehension of which, both written and unwritten, enable the individual to act properly under all circumstances.

Luật nghi giới.The first of the three Tụ giới, i.e. to avoid evil by keeping to the discipline.

Luật pháp.The laws or methods of the discipline; rules and laws.

Luật sám.Repentance and penance according to the rules.

Luật sư.Master and teacher of the rules of the discipline.

Luật tạng.Vinaya pitaka (S). Basket of discipline. Also tỳ nại da, tỳ ni (dịch cũ)

Luật tông.The Vinaya school, emphasizing the monastic discipline, founded in China by Đạo Tuyên of the Đường dynasty.

Luật tướng.The discipline, or its characteristics.

Luật thừa (thặng).The Vinaya-vehicle, the teaching which emphasizes the discipline.

Lục.Sad, sat (S). Six.

Lục Ba la mật.Six paramitàs.

Lục bộ Đại thừa kinh.The six works chosen by Từ Ân as authoritative in the Pháp tướng tông Dharmalaksana school, i.e Đại phương quảng Phật Hoa nghiêm, Giải thâm mật, Như lai xuất hiện công đức trang nghiêm, A tỳ đạt ma, Lăng già, and Hậu nghiêm.

Lục cảnh.The six fields of the senses, i.e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought).

Lục căn.Sadàyatana (S). The six indriyas or sense-organs: mắt eye, tai ear, mũi nose, lưỡi tongue, thân body, ý mind. Six bases.

Lục căn công đức.The powers of the six senses, i.e. the achievement by purification of their interchange of function.

Lục căn ngũ dụng.Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all the others, which is a Buddha's power.

Lục căn sám hối.A penitential (repentant) service over the sins of the six senses.

Lục căn thanh tịnh.The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power and interchange, as in the case of Buddha.

Lục căn thanh tịnh vị.The state of the organs thus purified is defined by Thiên Thai as the thập tín vị of the biệt giáo or the tương tợ tức of the viên giáo. Xem Lục tức.

Lục cấu.Six things that defile: cuống exageration, siểm flattery, kiêu arrogance, não vexation, hận hatred, hại malice.

Lục chủng chấn động.The six earthquakes, or earth-shakings, of which there are two different categories. I-Those at the Buddha's conception, birth, enlightenment, first preaching, when Màra besought him to live, and at his nirvàna; some omit the fifth and after "birth" add "leaving home". II. Động shaking, Khởi rising, Dũng waving, Chấn reverberating, Hống roaring, Kích arousing.

Lục chủng quyết định.The six kinds of certainty resulting from the observance of the six pàramitàs: (1) Tài thành the certainty of wealth; (2) Sinh thắng of rebirth in honourable families; (3) Bất thoái of no retrogression (in lower conditions); (4) Tu tập of progress in practice; (5) Định nghiệp of unfailingly good karma; (6) Vô công of effortless abode in truth and wisdom.

Lục chủng tính.The six germ-natures, or roots of Bodhisattva development: (1) Tập chủng tính, the germ-nature of study of the không void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the thập trụ; (2) Tính chủng t., that of ability to discriminate all the tính natures of phenomena and transform the living, the thập hạnh stage; (3) Đạo chủng t. (the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-law, the thập hồi hướng; (4) Thánh chủng t., the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance, the thập địa, in which the Bodhisattva leaves the rank of the hiền and becomes thánh; (5) Đẳng giác t., the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood. (6) Diệu giác t. Buddha stage.

Lục chủng trụ.The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattvabhùmi-sùtra Bồ tát địa trì kinh: (1) Chủng tính trụ the attainment of the Buddha-seed nature in the thập trụ; (2) Giải hành trụ of discernment and practice in the thập hạnh, thập hồi hướng; (3) Tịnh tâm trụ of purity by attaining reality in the sơ địa kiến đạo; (4) Hành đạo tích trụ of progress in riddance of incorrect thinking, in the nhị địa to thất địa; (5) Quyết định trụ of powers of correct decision and judgment in the bát, cửu địa; (6) Cứu cánh trụ of the perfect Bodhisattva-stage in the thập địa and the đẳng giác vị, but not including the diệu giác vị which is the Buddha-stage.

Lục chủng xảo phương tiện.The six able devices ođ Bodhisattvas: (1) preaching deep truths in simple form to lead on people gladly to believe; (2) promising them every good way of realizing their desires, of wealth etc. (3) showing a threatening aspect to the disobedient to induce reform; (4) rebuking and punishing them with a like object; (5) granting wealth to induce grateful offerings and almsgiving; (6) descending from heaven, leaving home, attaining bodhi, and leading all to joy and purity.

Lục dụ.The six illustrations of unreality in the Diamond sùtra: mộng dream, huyễn a phantasm, bào a bubble, ảnh a shadow, lộ dew and điện lightning

Lục dục.The six sexual attractions arising fron sắc colour; hình mạo form; oai nghi tư thái carriage; ngôn ngữ âm thanh voice (or speech); tế họạt softness; and nhân tướng features. Desires that originate in the six sensorial roots.

Lục dục thiên.The devalokas, i.e. the heavens of desire, i.e. with sense-organs

Lục đại.The six great, or fundamental things, or elements - địa earth, thủy water, hỏa fire, phong wind (or air), không space (or ether) and thức mind (or perception). These are universal and creative of all things, but the vô tình inanimate are made only of the first five while the hữu tình animate are of all six.

Lục đại phiền não.The six great klesa, passions or distressers: tham desire, sân resentment, si stupidity, mạn pride, nghi doubt and ác kiến false views.

Lục đạo.The six ways, or conditions of sentient existence. Xem Lục thú.

Lục đạo tứ sinh.The four modes of the six rebirths - thai womb, noãn egg,thấp moisture, hóa transformation.

Lục đạo tứ thánh.The four holy ways of the six rebirths - thanh văn sràvakas, pratyeka-buddhas duyên giác, bồ tát bodhisattvas, Phật Buddhas.

Lục độ.The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvàna, i.e. the six pàramitàs: (1) Bố thí dàna, charity or giving, including the bestowing of truth on others; (2) Trì giới sìla, keeping the commandments; (3) Nhẫn nhục ksànti, patience under insult; (4) Tinh tiến vìrya, zeal and progress; (5) Thiền định dhyàna, meditation or contemplation; (6) Trí tuệ prajnà, wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last which carries across the samsàra (sea of incarnate life) to the shore of nirvàna. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The adds four other pàramitàs: (7) Phương tiện upàya, the use of appropriate means; (8) Nguyện pranidhàna, pious vows; (9) Lực bala, power of fulfilment; (10) Trí jnana knowledge.

Lục đức.The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of the Buddha's titles: sovereign, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honoured.

Lục giới.The six elements. Xem lục đại.

Lục giới thú.The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements.

Lục hòa.The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: (1) bodily unity in form of worship thân hòa đồng trụ; (2) oral unity in chanting khẩu hòa vô tranh; (3) mental unity in faith ý hòa đồng duyệt; (4) moral unity in observing the commandments giới hòa đồng tu; (5) doctrinal unity in views and explainations kiến hòa đồng giải; (6) economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies or charity lợi hòa đồng quân.

Lục kết, sáu gút.A cloth or cord tied in six consecutive double loops and knots The cloth represents the fundamental unity, the knots the apparent diversity.

Lục La hán, sáu La hán.The six arhat, i.e. Sàkyamuni and his first five disciples.

Lục nan, sáu điều khó.The six difficult things: (1) Khó gặp Phật ra đời to be born in the Buddha-age; (2) Khó được nghe Chính pháp to hear the true Buddha-law; (3) Khó sinh lòng lành to beget a good heart; (4) Khó sinh ra nơi quốc độ trung ương to be born in the central kingdom; (5) Khó được thân người to be born in human form; (6) Khó đầy đủ các căn to be perfect,

Lục niệm.The six thoughts to dwell upon: Phật Buddha, Pháp the Law, Tăng the Order, the Giới commands, precepts, Thí almsgiving, and Thiên heaven with its prospective joys.

Lục niên khổ hạnh.The six years of Sàkyamuni's austerities before his enlightenment.

Lục nhân.The six causations of the lục vị six stages of Bodhisattva development. Every phenomenon depends upon the union of nhân primary cause and duyên conditional or environmental cause; and ođ the nhân there are six kinds: (1)-Năng tác nhân Kàrana-hetu, effective causes; (2)-Câu hữu nhân Sahabhù-hetu, co-operative causes; (3)-Đồng loại Sabhàga-hetu, causes of the same kind; (4)-Tương ưng nhân Samprayukta-hetu, mutual responsive, or associated causes; (5)-Biến hành nhân Sarvatraga-hetu, universal oromnipresent causes; (6)-Dị thục nhân Vipàka-hetu, differential fruition.

Lục nhập.Sadàyatana (S). The six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensation - eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidànas.

Lục phàm. The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people: in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men and devas.

Lục pháp giới.The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: bất dâm indelicacy of contact with a male; bất đạo purloining for cash; bất sát killing animals; bất cuống ngữ untruthfulness; bất phi thời thực food after the midday meal; bất ẩm tửu wine drinking.

Lục phương.The six directions E. W. N. S. above and below.

Lục phương lễ.The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage to the six directions.

Lục quần tỉ khưu (tỳ kheo).The six common-herd bhiksus, to whose improper or evil conduct is attributed the laying down of many of the laws of Sàkyamuni.

Lục suy.The six ruiners, i.e. the attractions of the six senses, idem lục trần, lục giới.

Lục sư ngoại đạo.The six tirthikas or heterodox teachers: (1) Phú lan na Ca diếp, Pùrana Kàsyapa; (2)-Mạt già lê Câu xá ly tử, Maskari Gosalêputra; (3)-San xà da Tỳ la hiền tử, Sanjayin Vairatitra; (4)-A kỳ đa Si xá khâm bà la, Ajita Kesakambala; (5)-Ca la cưu đà Ca chiên diên, Kakuda Kàtyàyana; (6)-Ni kiền đà Nhã đề tử, Nirgranta-Jnatiputra.

Lục sự thành tựu.The six things which enable a Bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pàramitàs - worshipful offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delight in the law.

Lục tặc.The six cauras, or robbers, i.e. the six senses; also likened to the six pleasures of the six sense organs.

Lục thành tựu. Six perfections found in the opening phrase of each sùtra: (1) "Thus", implies perfect faith tín thành tựu; (2) "have I heard, perfect hearing văn thành tựu; (3) "once", perfect time thời tt; (4) "the Buddha", the perfect lord or master chủ tt; (5) "on Mt Grdhrakùta", the perfect place xứ tt; (6) "with the great assembly of bhiksus", the perfect assembly chúng tt.

Lục thân.The six immediate relations - father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger brothers.

Lục thần thông.The six transcendental, or magical powers. Xem Lục thông.

Lục thập nhị kiến.Sixty two wrong views.

Lục thời.The six "hours" or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i.e. morning, noon, evening; night, midnight and dawn.

Lục thiên.The six devalokas: (1)-Tứ thiên vương. The realm of the four great kings. (2)-Đao lợi thiên. Heaven of the thirty three gods. (3)-Dạ ma thiên. Yama heaven. (4)-Đâu suất thiên. Tusita heaven. (5)-Lạc Biến hóa thiên. Nirmàna-rati heaven. (6)-Tha hóa tự tại thiên. Para-nirmita-vasavartin heaven.

Lục thông.Abhijnà, or sadabhijnà (S). The six supernatural or universal powers acquired by a Buddha, also by an arhat through the fourth degree of dhyàna: (1) Thiên nhãn thông Divyacaksu, divine eye; (2) Thiên nhĩ thông Divyasrotra, divine ear; (3) Thần túc thông Rddhisàksàkrya, magical powers; (4) Túc mạng thông Purvànivàsànu-smrtijnàna, remembrance of one's former state of existence; (5) Tha tâm thông Paracittà-jnàna, ability to perceive other person's thoughts; (6) LỈu tận thông Àsravaksaya-jnàna, supernatural consciousness of the waning of vicious propensities; extinction of the cankers.

Lục thú.The six directions of reincarnation, also lục đạo: (1) địa ngục naraka-gati, or that of the hells; (2) ngạ quỉ preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; (3) súc sinh tiryagyoni-gati, of animals; (4) a tu la asura-gati, of malevolent nature spirits; (5) nhân manusya-gati, of human existence; (6) thiên deva-gati, of deva existence.

Lục thụ (thọ).The six vedanas, i.e. receptions or sensations from the six organs lục căn.

Lục thụy, sáu điềm.The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus-sùtra: (1) thuyết pháp his opening address on the infinite; (2) nhập định his samàdhi; (3) mưa hoa the rain of flowers; (4) động đất the earthquake; (5) đại chúng vui mừng the delight of the beholders; (6) Phật phóng hào quang the Buddha-ray.

Lục thức.The six consciousness.

Lục tiễn, sáu mũi tên.The six arrows, i.e. the six senses.

Lục tổ.The six patriarchs of Thiền tông who passed down robe and begging bowl in succession, i.e. Bodhidharma, Huệ Khả, Tăng Sán, Đạo Tín, Hoằng Nhẫn and Huệ Năng.

Lục tội nhân.The six kinds of offender, i.e. one who commits any of the tứ trọng four grave sins, or destroys the harmony in the order. or sheds a Buddha's blood.

Lục tông.The six schools: Tam luận, Pháp tướng, Hoa nghiêm, Luật, Thành thật, Câu xá.

Lục trai nhật.The six monthly posadha, or fast days: the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, 30th.

Lục trần.Bàhyu-àyatana (S). The six gunas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i.e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and idea. Dust trần is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. The six external base-spheres.

Lục trước tâm.The six bonds, or the mind of the six bonds, greed, love, hate, lust, pride.

Lục tuệ.The six kinds of wisdom. Each is alloted seriatim to one of the six positions lục vị (1) Văn tuệ the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with thập trụ; (2) Tư tuệ of thought, with thập hạnh (3) Tu tuệ of observance, with the thập hồi hướng; (4) Vô tướng tuệ of neither extreme, or the mean, with thập địa; (5) Chiếu tịch tuệ of understanding of nirvàna, with đẳng giác; (6) Tịch chiếu tuệ of making nirvàna illuminate all beings, with Buddha-fruition.

Lục tự.The six words or syllables Nam mô A di đà Phật Namo Amitàbha.

Lục tự Đà la ni.Aum Mani Padme Hum (Án Ma ni Bát di Hồng).

Lục tức.The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Thiên Thai Viên giáo, i.e. Perfect or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary Thập tín, thập trụ etc, as found in the Biệt giáo Differentiated or Seperate school. The Thiên Thai six are: (1) Lý tức realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2)- Danh tự tức the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha-law and potentially Buddha; (3)-Quán hạnh tức advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as ngũ phẩm quán hạnh or ngũ phẩm đệ tử vị. (4)-Tương tợ tức semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the lục căn thanh tịnh vị, i.e.the thập tín vị, (5)-Phần chứng tức discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i.e. the thập trụ, thập hạnh, thập hồi hướng, thập địa and đẳng giác vị of the biệt giáo, known also as the thánh nhân cause or root of holiness; (6)-Cứu cánh tức perfect enlightenment, i.e. diệu giác vị or thánh quả fruition of holiness.

Lục tức Phật.Buddha in six forms mentioned above.

Lục tướng.The six characteristics found in everything - tổng biệt whole and parts, đồng dị unity and diversity, thành hoại entirety and (its) fraction.

Lục vật.The six things personal to amonk - sanghàti, the patch robe; uttarà sanghàti, the stole of seven pieces; antara-vàsaka, the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the tam y three garments; pàtra begging bowl; nisìdana a stool; and a water-strainer. The six are also called tam y lục vật.

Lục vị.The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i.e. thập tín, thập trụ, thập hồi hướng, thập địa, đẳng giác, Phật địa.

Lục vị.The six tastes or flavours - đắng bitter, chua sour, ngọt sweet, chát acrid, mặn salt and nhạt insipid

Lục xứ, lục nhập.Sadàyatana (S). The six places, or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the nidànas. Six spheres of sense-organs.

Luyến ái, ái dục, dục vọng.Trsnà (S), Tanhà (P). Craving, thirst, lust.

Lư câu đa bà thi bộ.Lokottaravàda (S). Buddhist sect. Also Thuyết xuất thế bộ, xuất thế bộ.

Lữ lô đạt ma.Xem cồ lâu đạt ma.

Lự thủy nang, đồ lọc nước.Water-filter.

Lửa.Agni (S). Fire.

Lực.Bala (S). Power, strength. Thập lực: the ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

Lực ba la mật.The bala-pàramità (S). Resolution.

Lực sĩ.Vira (S). A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod.

Lưu xá na Phật.Virocana Buddha (S). The Sun Buddha.

Lương.Good, beneficial, virtuous.

Lương hoàng sám.The litany of Lương Vũ Đế for his wife, who became a large snake, or dragon, after her death and troubled the emperor's dreams. After the litany was performed, she became a devi, thanked the emperor and departed. Also Từ bi đạo tràng sám pháp.

Lương nhật, cát nhật.A good or auspicious day.

Lương vũ đế.Liang Wu Ti (C). A Chinese Emperor.

Lương phúc điền.The field of blessedness, cultivated by offerings to Buddha, the Law and the Order.

Lưỡng.Two, a couple, both; an ounce, or tael.

Lưỡng dực, hai cánh.The two wings of định meditation and tuệ wisdom.

Lưỡng giới mạn đà la.Mandala of the two sections, i.e. dual powers of the two Japanese groups symbolizing the Kim cương giới Vajradhàtu and Thai tạng giới Garbhadhàtu.

Lưỡng hà.The two rivers, Niranjanà where Buddha attained enlightenment and Hiranyavati where he entered nirvàna.

Lưỡng kiên thần, thần hai vai.The two recording spirits, one at each shoulder.

Lưỡng quyền.The two temporary vehicles, Sràvaka Thanh văn and Pratyeka-Buddha Duyên giác, as contrasted to the thực complete Bodhisattva doctrine of Mahàyàna.

Lưỡng thiệt.Double tongue. One of the ten forms of evil conduct thập ác nghiệp.

Lưỡng túc tôn.The most honoured among men and devas (among two footed beings), a title of Buddha. The two feet are compared to the commandments and meditation, phúc blessing and tuệ wisdom, relative and absolute teaching, meditation and action.

Lưu.Flow; float; spread; wander.

Lưu chuyển.Samsàra (S). Transmigration, flowing and returning, flowing back again.

Lưu chuyển môn.The way of transmigration, as contrasted with diệt môn that of nirvàna.

Lưu lai.Flowed or floated down; that which has come down from the past.

Lưu lai sinh tử.Transmigration which has come down from thr state of primal ignorance.

Lưu sa.Floating or shifting sands.

Lưu thông.Spread abroad; permeate; flowing through, or everywhere, without effective hindrance. Circulation.

Lưu truyền.To hand down (to posterity); to bequeath sth to generations to come.

Lưu ly.Lapis lazuli.

Ly.To leave, part from, apart from, abandon.

Ly bà đa.Revata.

Ly cái.To abandon the ngũ cái five obscurers, or hindrances to truth.

Ly cấu.To leave the impure, abandon the defiling influence of the passions, or illusion.

Ly cấu địa.The second of the ten bodhisattva stages in which he overcomes all passion and impurity

Ly cấu nhãn.To abandon the eye of imourity, or cantamination, and attain the eye which beholds truth and reality.

Ly cấu thế giới.The world free from impurity, the name of Sàriputra's Buddha-realm.

Ly dục.To leave or be free from desire, or the passions.

Ly gián ngữ.Talk which causes estrangement between friends; alienating words; one of the ten wicked things.

Ly hệ quả.Visamyogaphala (S).

Ly ngôn.That which cannot be described in words, e.g. the bhùtatathatà, which is beyond definition.

Ly sinh.To leave the chain of rebirth.

Ly sinh hỷ lạc địa.The first dhyàna heaven, where is experienced the joy of leaving the evils of life.

Ly sinh tính.The true nature of the holy man which leaves the round of mortality.

Ly tính vô biệt Phật.Apart from mind there is no other Buddha, i.e. the tính is Buddha.

Ly tướng, ly tướng giới, vô tướng giới.The inner commands, or observance in the heart, in contrast with external observance or ritual.

Ly trần phục.Kasàya (S). The monk's robe, freed from the dusty world; i.e. free from the contamination of the senses.

Lý.Siddhànta, hetu (S). Ruling principle, fundamental law, intrinsicality, universal basis, essential element; nidàna, reason; pramàna, to arrange, regulate, rule, rectify.

Lý chướng.The hindrance caused by incorrect views of truth.

Lý cụ.Wholly noumenal, or all things as aspects of the absolute, a doctrine of the Thiên Thai "profounder" school, in contrast with the sự tạo of the "shallower" school, which considered all things to be phenomenally produced.

Lý hoặc.Illusion in regard to fundamental truth, e.g. the reality of the ego and things; as sự hoặc is illusion in regard to things themselves. Also fundamental illusion; reality and illusion.

Lý luận.Reasoning on, or discussion of, principles, or fundamental truth.

Lý nhập.Entry by the truth, or by means of the doctrine, as hạnh nhập is entry by conduct or practice.

Lý pháp thân.The Dharmakàya as absolute being, in contrast with trí pháp thân the Dharmakàya as wisdom, both according to the older school being vô vi noumenal; later writers treat lý pháp thân as noumenal and trí pháp thân as kinetic or active. Lý pháp giới one of the tứ giới, that of the common essence or dharmakàya of all beings.

Lý Phật.The fundamental or intrinsic Buddha, i.e. the Dharmakàya; also the Thiên Thai doctrine of Buddha as immanent in all beings.

Lý Phật tính.The fundamental Buddha-nature, in contrast with Hạnh Phật tính the Buddha-nature in action or development.

Lý quán.The concept of absolute truth; the concentration of the mind upon reality.

Lý sự.Noumena and phenomena, principle and practice, absolute and realative, real and empirical, cause and effect, fundamental essence and external activity, potential and actual; e.g. store and distribution, ocean and wave, static and kinetic.

Lý tại tuyệt ngôn.Truth is in eliminating words; it is independent of words; it does not require words to express it.

Lý tính.Absolute nature, immutable reality, fundamental prinviple or character.

Lý tức Phật.The underlying truth of all things is Buddha; immanent reason; Buddhahood, or the underdeveloped Buddha in all beings.

Lý thể.The fundamental substance or body of all things.

Lý thiền.The dhyàna of or concentration on absolute truth free from phenomenal contamination.

Lý trí.Principle and gnosis (reason); the noumenal in essence and in knowledge; the truth in itself and in knowledge; lý is also the fundamental principle of the phenomenon under observation, trí the observing wisdom. Also knowledge or enlightenment in its essence or purity, free from incarnational influences.

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