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Phụ lục

14/05/201319:32(Xem: 9595)
Phụ lục

Kinh An Ban Thủ Ý Lược Giải

Phụ lục

Thích Đạt Đạo

Nguồn: Thích Đạt Đạo

PHỤ LỤC 1

Bảng Hán Văn : Đại Tạng kinh số 15, tr. 163, No. 602

佛說大安般守意經卷上

康僧會序

夫安般者。諸佛之大乘。以濟眾生之漂流也。其事有六以治六情。情有內外。眼耳鼻舌身心謂之內矣。色聲香味細滑邪念謂之外也。經曰諸海十二事。謂內外六情之受邪行。猶海受流。餓夫夢飯蓋無滿足也。心之溢盪無微不浹。怳惚彷彿出入無間。視之無形聽之無聲。逆之無前尋之無後。深微細妙形無絲髮。梵釋仙聖所不能照明默種于此化生乎。彼非凡所睹。謂之陰也。猶以晦曀種夫深芬闓手覆種。孳有萬億。旁人不睹其形。種家不知其數也。一朽乎下萬生乎上。彈指之間心九百六十轉。一日一夕十三億意。意有一身心不自知。猶彼種夫也。是以行寂。繫意著息數一至十。十數不誤意定在之。小定三日。大定七日。寂無他念怕然若死。謂之一禪。禪棄也。棄十三億穢念之意。已獲數定轉念著隨蠲除其八。正有二意。意定在隨。由在數矣。垢濁消滅心稍清淨。謂之二禪也。又除其一注意鼻頭。謂之止也。得止之行。三毒四走五陰六冥諸穢滅矣。煚然心明踰明月珠。婬邪污心。猶鏡處泥穢垢污焉。偃以照天覆以臨土。聰叡聖達萬土臨照。雖有天地之大靡一夫而能睹。所以然者由其垢濁。眾垢污心有彼鏡。若得良師刮瑩磨。薄塵微蕩使無餘。舉之以照。毛髮面理無微不察。垢退明存使其然矣。情溢意散念萬不識一矣。猶若於市馳心放聽廣採眾音。退宴在思不識一夫之言。心逸意散濁翳其聰也。若自閑處。心思寂寞。志無邪欲。側耳靖聽。萬句不失。片言斯著。心靖意清之所由也。行寂止意懸之鼻頭。謂之三禪也。還觀其身。自頭至足反覆微察內體污露。森楚毛豎猶睹膿涕。於斯具照天地人物。其盛若衰無存不亡。信佛三寶。眾冥皆明。謂之四禪也。攝心還念諸陰皆滅。謂之還也。穢欲寂盡其心無想。謂之淨也。得安般行者厥心即明。舉明所觀無幽不睹。往無數劫方來之事。人物所更現在諸剎。其中所有世尊法化弟子誦習。無遐不見無聲不聞。怳惚彷彿存亡自由。大彌八極細貫毛釐。制天地住壽命。猛神德壞天兵。動三千移諸剎。八不思議非梵所測。神德無限六行之由也。世尊初欲說斯經時。大于震動人天易色。三日安般無能質者。於是世尊化為兩身。一曰何等。一尊主。演于斯義出矣。大士上人六雙十二輩靡不執行。有菩薩名安清字世高。安息王嫡后之子。讓國與叔馳避本土。翔而後集遂處京師。其為人也。博學多識。貫綜神摸。七正盈縮。風氣吉凶。山崩地動。鍼[]諸術。睹色知病。鳥獸鳴啼無音不照。懷二儀之弘。仁愍黎庶之頑闇。先挑其耳卻啟其目。欲之視明聽聰也。徐乃陳演正真之六度。譯安般之祕奧。學者塵興靡不去穢濁之操就。清白之德者也。余生末蹤始能負薪。考妣殂落三師凋喪。仰瞻雲日悲無質受。眷言顧之潛然出涕。宿祚未沒會見南陽韓林穎川皮業會稽陳慧。此三賢者。信道篤密執德弘正。烝烝進進志道不倦。余從之請問。規同矩合義無乖異。陳慧注義余助斟酌。非師所傳不敢自由也。言多鄙拙不究佛意。明哲眾賢願共臨察。義有疣加聖刪定共顯神融矣血*永

佛說大安般守意經卷上(此經多隨字除數息相隨之隨餘皆他本作墮)

後漢安息三藏安世高譯

佛在越祇國舍羈瘦國。亦說一名遮匿迦羅國。時佛坐行安般守意九十日。佛復獨坐九十日者。思惟校計。欲度脫十方人及蜎飛蠕動之類。復言。我行安般守意九十日者。安般守意得自在慈念意。還行安般守意已。復收意行念也。安為身。般為息。守意為道。守者為禁亦謂不犯戒。禁者亦為護。護者遍護一切無所犯。意者息意亦為道也。安為生。般為滅。意為因緣。守者為道也。安為數。般為相隨。守意為止也。安為念道。般為解結。守意為不墮罪也。安為避罪。般為不入罪。守意為道也。安為定。般為莫使動搖。守意莫亂意也。安般守意名為御意至得無為也。安為有。般為無。意念有不得道。意念無不得道。亦不念有亦不念無。是應空定意隨道行。有者謂萬物。無者謂疑。亦為空也。安為本因緣。般為無處所。道人知本無所從來。亦知滅無處所。是為守意也安為清。般為淨。守為無。意名為。是清淨無為也。無者謂活。為者謂生。不復得苦故為活也。安為未。般為起。已未起便為守意。若已意起便為守意。若已起意便走為不守當為還。故佛說安般守意也。安為受五陰。般為除五陰。守意為覺因緣。不隨身口意也。守意者。無所著為守意。有所著不為守意。何以故。意起復滅故。意不復起為道。是為守意。守意莫令意生。生因有死為不守意。莫令意死。有死因有生意亦不死。是為道也。安般守意有十黠。謂數息相隨止觀還淨四諦。是為十黠成。謂合三十七品經為行成也。守意譬如燈火有兩因緣。一者壞冥。二者見明。守意一者壞癡。二者見黠也。守意意從因緣生。當緣因緣莫著。是為守意也。守意有三輩。一者守令不得生。二者已生當疾滅。三者事已行當從後悔計億萬劫不復作也。守與意各自異。護十方一切覺對不犯是為守。覺彼無為是為意。是守意也。守意中有四樂。一者知要樂。二者知法樂。三者為知止樂。四者為知可樂。是為四樂。法為行。得為道。守意六事為有內外。數隨止是為外。觀還淨是為內。隨道也。何以故。念息相隨止觀還淨欲習意近道故。離是六事便隨世間也。數息為遮意。相隨為[]意。止為定意。觀為離意。還為一意。淨為守意。用人不能制意故行此六事耳。何以故數息。用意亂故。何以故不得。用不識故。何以故不得禪。用不棄習盡證行道故也。數息為地。相隨為犁。止為軛。觀為種。還為雨淨為行。如是六事乃隨道也。數息斷外。相隨斷內。止為止罪。行觀卻意。不受世間為還。念斷為淨也。意亂當數息。意定當相隨。意斷當行止。得道意當觀。不向五陰當還。無所有當為淨也。多事當數息。少事當相隨。家中意盡當行止。畏世間當觀。不欲世間為還。念斷為淨也。何以故數息。不欲隨五陰故。何以故相隨。欲知五陰故。何以故止。欲觀五陰故。何以故觀陰。欲知身本故。何以故知身本。欲棄苦故。何以故為還。厭生死故。何以故為淨。分別五陰不受故。便隨黠慧八種道得別為得所願也。行息時為隨數。相隨時為隨念。止時為隨定。觀時為隨淨。還時為隨意。淨時為隨道亦為隨行也 僉*殳

數息為四意止。相隨為四意斷。止為四神足念。觀為五根五力還為七覺意。淨為八行也。得息不相隨不為守意。得相隨不止不為守意。得止不觀不為守意。得觀不還不為守意。得還不淨不為守意。得淨復淨乃為守意也。已念息惡不生。復數者為共遮意。不隨六衰故。行相隨為欲離六衰行。止為欲卻六衰行。觀為欲斷六衰行。還為欲不受六衰行。淨為欲滅六衰。已滅盡便隨道也

數息欲遮意。息中有長短。當復遮是長短意也。何以故守意。欲止惡故。惡亦可守亦不可守。何以故。惡已盡不當復守也

數息有三事。一者當坐行。二者見色當念非常不淨。三者當曉瞋恚疑嫉念過去也。數息亂者當識因緣所從起。當知是內意。一息亂者是外意過。息從外入故。二息亂者是內意過。息從中出故。三五七九屬外意。四六八十屬內意。嫉瞋恚疑是三意在內。殺盜婬兩舌惡口妄言綺語。是七意及餘事屬外也。得息為外。不得息為內。息從意生。念息合為一數。息至盡數為一亦非一。意在外息未盡故。譬如數錢。意在五數為一也。數息所以先數入者。外有七惡。內有三惡。用少不能勝多故先數入也。數息不得者失其本意故。本意謂非常苦空非身。失是意墮顛倒故。亦為失師。師者初坐時。第一入息得身安便次第行。為失其本意故不得息也。數息意常當念非常苦空非身。計息出亦滅入亦滅。已知是得道疾當持非常恐意。得是意即得息也。入息出息所以異者。出息為生死陰。入息為思想陰。有時出息為痛痒陰。入息為識陰。用是為異。道人當分別是意也。入息者為不受罪。出息者為除罪。守意者為離罪。入息者為受因緣。出息者為到因緣。守意者為不離因緣也。數息不得有三因緣。一者罪到。二者行不互。三者不精進也。入息短出息長。無所從念為道意。有所念為罪。罪惡在外不在內也數息時。有離意為喘息長。得息為喘息短。不安行息為長定為短。念萬物為長息無所念為短息。未至十息。壞復更數為長息。得十息為短息。得息為短。何以故。止不復數故。得息亦為長。何以故。息不休故為長也。喘息長自知。喘息短自知。謂意所在為自知長短。意覺長短為自知。意不覺長短為不自知也。道人行安般守意欲止意。當何因緣得止意。聽說安般守意。何等為安。何等為般。安名為入息。般名為出息。念息不離是名為安般。守意者欲得止意。在行者新學者。有四種安般守意行。除兩惡十六勝。即時自知乃安般守意行令得止意。何等為四種。一為數。二為相隨。三為止。四為觀。何等為兩惡。莫過十息。莫減十數。何等為十六勝。即時自知喘息長。即自知喘息短。即自知喘息動身。即自知喘息微。即自知喘息快。即自知喘息不快。即自知喘息止。即自知喘息不止。即自知喘息歡心。即自知喘息不歡心。即自知內心念萬物已去不可復得喘息自知。內無所復思喘息自知。棄捐所思喘息自知。不棄捐所思喘息自知放棄軀命。喘息自知。不放棄軀命喘息自知。是為十六即時自知也。問何等為莫過十數莫減十數。報息已盡未數是為過。息未盡便數是為減。失數亦惡不及亦惡。是為兩惡。至二息亂為短息。至九息亂為長息。得十息為快息。相隨為微。意在長便轉意。我何以故念長。意在短即時覺不得令意止。止為著。放棄軀命者謂行息。得道意便放棄軀命。未得道意。常愛身故不放棄軀命也。息細微為道。長為生死。短息動為生死。長於道為短。何以故。不得道意無知見故為短也。數息為單。相隨為複。止為一意。觀為知意。還為行道。淨為入道也。數時為念至十息為持是為外禪。念身不淨隨空是為內禪也。禪法惡來不受是名為棄。閉口數息隨氣出入。知氣發何所滅何所。意有所念不得數息。有遲疾大小亦不得數。耳聞聲亂亦不得數也。數息意在息數為不工。行意在意乃為止。數息意但在息是為不工。當知意所從起氣所滅。是乃應數因緣盡便得定意也。守意者念出入息。已念息不生惡故為守意。息見因緣生無因緣滅因緣斷息止也。數息為至誠。息不亂為忍辱。數息氣微不復覺出入。如是當守一念止也。息在身亦在外。得因緣息生。罪未盡故有息。斷因緣息不復生也

數息以為隨第二禪。何以故。用不待念故為隨第二禪也。數息為不守意。念息乃為守意。息從外入息未盡息在入意在盡識在數也。十息有十意為十絆。相隨有二意為二絆。止為一意為一絆。不得息數為惡意不可絆。惡意止乃得數。是為和調可意絆也。已得息棄息。已得相隨棄相隨。已得止棄止。已得觀棄觀莫復還莫復還者。莫復數息亦使意意亦使息也有。所念為息使意。無所念為意使息也。息有四事。一為風。二為氣。三為息。四為喘。有聲為風。無聲為氣。出入為息。氣出入不盡為喘也。數息斷外。相隨斷內。數從外入為斷外亦欲離外因緣。數從中出為欲離內因緣。外為身離。內為意離。身離意離是為相隨。出入息是為二事也。數息為欲斷內外因緣。何等為內外。謂眼耳鼻口身意為內。色聲香味細滑念為外也。行息為使意向空。但欲止餘意。何以為向空。息中無所為故也。數息意走不。即時覺者。罪重意輕罪。引意去疾故不覺也。行道已得息自厭息意欲轉不復欲數如是為得息。相隨止觀亦爾也。知出入息滅。滅為得息相知生死。不復用為得生死相已得四禪。但念空為 種 道栽 行 息 已

得定不復覺氣出入便可觀。一當觀五十五事。二當觀身中十二因緣也。問息出入寧有處不報息入時。是其處出息時。是其處數息身坐痛痒思想生死識止不行。是為坐也。念息得道復校計者。用息無所知故。問念息得道何以為無所知。報意知息息不知意是為無所知。人不能得校計意。便令數息。欲令意定。雖數息。但不生惡。無有黠智。當何 等 行 得 黠 慧。從一至 十。 分 別 定 亂。 識 對行 藥。已得定意。便 隨黠慧。得校計為墮觀也。問何等為數。報數者謂事。譬如人有事更求是為數罪。道人數福。何以故正為十。一意起為一。二意起為二。數終於十。至十為竟。故言十數為福。復有罪者用不能壞息故為罪。亦謂意生死不滅墮世間已不斷世間事為罪也。六情為六事痛痒思想生死識。合為十事。應內十息。殺盜婬兩舌惡口妄言綺語嫉妒瞋恚癡。應外十息。謂止不行也

問何等為十六事。報十事者。謂數至十六者。謂數相隨止觀還淨。是為十六事為行不離為隨道也。問數息念風為隨色何以應道。報行意在數不念色氣盡便滅。墮非常知非常為道也。道人欲得道。要當知坐行二事。一者為坐。二者為行。問坐與行。為同不同報。有時同有時不同。數息相隨止觀還淨。此六事。有時為坐。有時為行。何以故。數息意定。是為坐。意隨法。是為行。已起意不離為行。亦為坐也。坐禪法。一不數。二二不數一一數二者謂數一息未竟便言二是為一數二如是為過精進二數一者謂息已入二甫言一是為二數一如是為不及精進。從三至四五至六七至八九至十。各自有分部。當分別所屬。在一數一。在二數二。是為法行便墮精進也。有三坐墮道。一為數息坐。二為誦經坐。三為聞經喜坐。是為三也。坐有三品。一為味合坐。二為淨坐。三為無有結坐。何等為味合坐。謂意著行不離。是為味合坐。何謂為淨坐。謂不念為淨坐。何等為無有結坐。謂結已盡為無有結坐也。息有三輩。一為雜息。二為淨息。三為道息。不行道。是為雜息。數至十息不亂。是為淨息。已得道。是為道息也。息有三輩。有大息。有中息有微息。口有所語。謂大息止念道。中息止得四禪。微息止也

問佛何以教人數息守意報。有四因緣。一者用不欲痛故。二者用避亂意故。三者用閉因緣。不欲與生死會故。四者用欲得泥洹道故也。譬喻說日無光明者有四因緣。一者用有雲故。二者用有塵故。三者用有大風故。四者用有煙故。數息不得亦有四因緣。一者用念生死校計故。二者用飲食多故。三者用疲極故。四者用坐不得更罪地故。此四事來皆有相。坐數息忽念他事失息意。是為念校計相。骨節盡痛。不能久坐。是為食多相。身重意瞪瞢。但欲睡眠。是為疲極相。四面坐不得一息。是為罪地相。以知罪當經行。若讀經文坐。意不習罪。亦禍消也。道人行道當念本。何等為本。謂心意識是為本。是三事皆不見。已生便滅。本意不復生。得是意為道。意本意已滅無為痛更因緣生便斷也。定意日勝。日勝為定意。有時從息得定意。有時從相隨得定意。有時從止得定意。有時從觀得定意。隨得定因緣直行也。行息亦墮貪。何以故。意以定便喜故。便當計出息入息念滅時。息生身生息滅身滅。尚未脫生死苦。何以故。喜已計如是便貪止也。數息欲疾。相隨欲遲。有時數息當安徐。相隨時當為疾。何以故。數息意不亂當安徐。數亂當為疾。相隨亦同如是也。第一數亦相隨所念異。雖數息當知氣出入意著在數也。數息復行相隨。止觀者。謂不得息前世有習。在相隨止觀。雖得相隨。止觀當還從數息起也。數息意不離是為法離。為非法數息意不隨罪。意在世間便墮罪也。數息為不欲亂意故。意以不亂復行相隨者。證上次意知為止。止與觀同。還與淨同也。行道得微意當倒意者。謂當更數息。若讀經已。乃復行禪微意者。謂不數息及行相隨也

佛有六潔意。謂數息相隨止觀還淨。是六事能制無形也。息亦是意亦非意。何以故。數時意在息為是。不數時意息各自行。是為非意。從息生意已。止無有意也。人不使意意使人。使意者。謂數息相隨止觀還淨。念三十七品經。是為使意。人不行道貪求隨欲。是為意使人也。息有垢息垢不去不得息。何等為息垢。謂三冥中最劇者。是為息垢。何等為三冥。謂三毒起時身中正冥故言三冥。三毒者。一為貪婬。二為瞋恚。三為愚癡。人皆坐是三事死故言毒也。數息時意在數息未數時有三意。有善意有惡意有不善不惡意。欲知人得息相者。當觀萬物及諸好色。意不復著是為得息。相意復著。是為未得當更精進。行家中意欲盡者。謂六情為意家貪愛萬物。皆為意家也相隨者。謂行善法從是得脫。當與相隨。亦謂不隨五陰六入。息與意相隨也

問第三止。何以故。止在鼻頭。報用數息相隨止觀還淨。皆從鼻出入。意習故處亦為易識。以是故著鼻頭也。惡意來者斷為禪。有時在鼻頭止。有時在心中止。在所著為止。邪來亂人意。直觀一事。諸惡來心不當動。心為不畏之哉也。止有四。一為數止。二為相隨止。三為鼻頭止。四為息心止。止者謂五樂六入當制止之也

入息至盡鼻頭止。謂惡不復入至鼻頭止。出息至盡著鼻頭。謂意不復離身行向惡故著鼻頭。亦謂息初入時。便一念向不復轉。息出入亦不復覺。是為止也。止者如如出息入息覺知前意出。不覺後意出。覺前意為意相觀。便察出入息見敗。便受相畏生死便卻意。便隨道意相也。莫為相隨者。但念著鼻頭。五陰因緣不復念。罪斷意滅亦不喘息。是為止也。莫為相隨者。謂莫復意念出入。隨五陰因緣。不復喘息也

第四觀者。觀息敗時與觀身體異息。見因緣生無因緣滅也。心意受相者。謂意欲有所得。心計因緣會當復滅。便斷所欲不復向。是為心意受相也。以識因緣為俱相觀者。謂識知五陰因緣。出息亦觀入息亦觀。觀者謂觀五陰。是為俱觀。亦應意意相觀。為兩因緣。在內斷惡念道也。觀出息異入息異者。謂出息為生死陰。入息為思想陰。有時出息為痛痒陰。入息為識陰。隨因緣起便受陰。意所向無有常用。是故為異。道人當分別知是。亦謂出息滅入息生。入息滅出息生也。無有故者。謂人意及萬物意起已滅。物生復死。是為無有故也。非出息是入息。非入息是出息。非謂出息時意不念入息。入息時意不念出息。所念異故言非也。中信者。謂入道中見道因緣信道。是為中信也

第五還棄結者。謂棄身七惡。第六淨棄結者為棄意三惡。是名為還。還者為意不復起惡。惡者是為不還也。還身者。謂還惡得第五還尚有身亦無身。何以故。有意有身無意無身。意為人種。是名為還。還者謂意不復起惡。起惡者是為不還。亦謂前助身後助意。不殺盜婬兩舌惡口妄言綺語。是為助身。不嫉瞋恚癡。是為助意也。還五陰者。譬如買金得石便棄捐地不用。人皆貪愛五陰得苦痛。便不欲是為還五陰也。何等為便見滅盡處。謂無所有是為滅處。問已無所有。何以故。為處者無所有處有四處。一者飛鳥以空中為處。二者羅漢以泥洹為處。三者道以無有為處。四者法在觀處也。出息入息受五陰相者。謂意邪念疾轉還正以生覺斷。為受五陰相。言受者。謂受不受相也。以受五陰相。知起何所滅何所。滅者為受十二因緣人。從十二因緣生。亦從十二因緣死。不念者為不念五陰也。知起何所滅何所。謂善惡因緣起便復滅。亦謂身亦謂氣生滅。念便生不念便死。意與身同等。是為斷生死道。在是生死間。一切惡事皆從意來也。今不為前前不為今者。謂前所念已滅。今念非前念。亦謂前世所作今世所作各自得福。亦謂今所行善非前所行惡。亦謂今息非前息。前息非今息也。為生死分別者。為意念生即生念滅即滅。故言生死。當分別萬物及身。過去未來福為索盡。何以故。盡以生便滅滅便盡。已知盡當盡力求也。視上頭無所從來者。謂人無所從來意起為人。亦謂人不自作來者。為有所從來。人自作自得是為無所從來也。生死當分別者。謂知分別五陰。亦謂知分別意生死人意為常。知無有常亦為分別也。後視無處所者。為今現在。不見罪人在生死會。當得無有脫於罪故。言後視無有處所。未得道跡。不得中命盡。謂已得十五意不得中死。要當得十五意便墮道。亦轉上至阿羅漢也。中得道亦不得中命盡。為息意身凡三事。謂善惡意要當得道跡亦復中壞。息死復生。善意起復滅。身亦不得中死也。何等為淨。謂諸所貪欲為不淨。除去貪欲是為淨。何等為五陰相。譬喻火為陰薪為相也。從息至淨是皆為觀。謂觀身相隨止觀還淨本為無有。內意數息外意斷惡因緣。是為二意也。問何以故。不先內外觀身體。反先數息相隨止觀還淨。報用意不淨故。不見身意已淨。便悉見身內外道。行有十九。行用人有十九病故。亦有十九藥。觀身念惡露。是為止貪婬藥。念四等心。是為止瞋恚藥。自計本何因緣有。是為止愚癡藥。安般守意。是為多念藥也。內外自觀身體。何等為身。何等為體。骨肉為身。六情合為體也。何等為六情。謂眼合色耳受聲鼻向香口欲味細滑為身衰意為種栽為癡。為有生物也。內外身體所以重出者何。謂人貪求有大小有前後。謂所欲得當分別觀。觀者見為念。念因見觀者為知也。身體止者。坐念起起念意不離。在所行意所著為識。是為身觀止也。出息入息念滅時。何等為念滅時。謂念出入氣盡時。意息滅出息入息念滅時。譬如畫空中無有。處生死意道意俱爾也。出息入息念滅時。亦不說息意息說。滅時出息入息念滅時。物從因緣生。斷本為滅時也。內外痛痒見觀者。為見痛痒所從起。便觀是為見觀也。內外痛痒者。謂外好物為外痒。外惡物為外痛。內可意為內痒內不可意為內痛。在內為內法。在外因緣為外法。亦謂目為內色為外。耳為內聲為外。鼻為內香為外。口為內味為外。心為內念為外。見好細滑意欲得是為痒。見麤惡意不用是為痛。俱墮罪也。痛痒觀止者。若人臂痛意不作痛。反念他一切身痛如是。以意不在痛為止痛。亦可念亦不可念。念痛無所著。自愛身當觀他人身。意愛他人身當自觀身亦為止也

內外痛痒所以重出者何。謂人見色愛有薄厚。其意不等觀。多與少異故。重分別觀道。當內觀有癡。當外觀以自證也。身心痛痒各自異。得寒熱刀杖痛極。是為身痛。得美飯載車好衣身諸所便。是為身痒。心痛者。身自憂復憂他人及萬事。是為心痛。心得所好及諸歡喜。是為心痒也。意相觀者有兩因緣。在內斷惡念道。一者謂五樂六衰當制斷之。觀者自觀身。身不知麤細。以得乃覺是為意意相觀。意意相觀息亦是意。數亦是意。數時觀息為意意相觀也。意觀止者。欲婬制不為欲瞋恚制不怒欲癡制不作欲貪制不求諸惡事一切不向。是為觀止。亦謂以知三十七品經。常念不離為止也。出息入息盡定便觀者。盡謂罪盡。定謂息止意。定觀者謂觀止還淨也。盡止者謂我能說是曉是遍更是。是為盡止也。所起息若布施作福一切善法。已起便滅更意念耶。向習罪行亦無數。古世今世意不如是相隨。他人亦爾。已知覺當斷已斷。為內外意意觀止也。內外法法者。內法謂身。外法謂他人。有持戒法有不持戒法。是為內外法法也。內法謂行黠不離三十七品經。一切餘事意不墮中。行道得道。是為內法。外法謂墮生死謂生死行。便得生死不脫一切當斷已斷。為內外法觀止也。法觀止者。一切人皆自身為身。諦校計非我身。何以故。有眼有色。眼亦非身色亦非身。何以故。人已死有眼無所見。亦有色無所應。身如是但有識亦非身。何以故。識無有形。亦無所輕止。如是計眼耳鼻舌身意亦爾。得是計為法觀止。亦謂不念惡為止。念惡為不止。何以故。意行故也

佛說大安般守意經卷上

佛說大安般守意經卷下

後漢安息三藏安世高譯 出息入息自覺。出息入息自知。當時為覺。以後為知。覺者謂覺息長短。知者謂知息生滅麤細遲疾也。出息入息覺盡止者。謂覺出入息欲報時為盡。亦計萬物身生復滅。心者謂意止也。見觀空者。行道得觀不復見身。便墮空無所有者。謂意無所著意有所著因。為有斷六入便得賢明。賢謂身。明謂道也。知出何所滅何所者。譬如念石出石入木石便滅。五陰亦爾。出色入痛痒。出痛痒入思想。出思想入生死。出生死入識。已分別是。乃墮三十七品經也

問何等為思惟無為道。報思為校計惟為聽無謂不念萬物。為者如說行道為得故。言思惟無為道也。思為念惟為分別白黑。黑為生死白為道。道無所有已分別無所有。便無所為。故言思惟無為道。若計有所為所著。為非思惟。思亦為物惟為解意。解意便知十二因緣事。亦謂思為念惟為計也。斷生死得神足。謂意有所念為生。無所念為死。得神足者能飛行故。言生死當斷也

得神足有五意。一者喜。二者信。三者精進。四者定。五者通也。四神足念不盡力得五通。盡力自在向六通。為道人四神足。得五通盡意可得六通盡意。謂萬物意不欲也。一信二精進三意四定五黠。是五事為四神足。念為力者凡六事也。從信為屬四神足念。從喜從念精進從定從黠。是為屬五根也。從喜定謂信道。從力定謂精進。從意定謂意念定。從施定謂行道也。為種故有根。有為之事。皆為惡。便生想不能得勝。謂得禪是因為力。亦謂惡不能勝善意。滅復起故為力。力定者惡意欲來不能壞。善意故為力定也

道人行道未得觀。當校計得觀。在所觀意不復轉為得觀止惡一法為坐禪觀二法。有時觀身有時觀意有時觀喘息有時觀有有時觀無。在所因緣當分別觀也。止惡一法觀二法惡已盡。止觀者為觀道。惡未盡不見道。惡已盡乃得觀道也。止惡一法為知惡。一切能制不著意為止。亦為得息想隨止。得息想隨止是為止惡一法。惡已止便得觀故。為觀二法。為得四諦為行淨。當復作淨者。識苦棄習。知盡行道。如日出時。淨轉出十二門故。經言從道得脫也。去冥見明如日出時。譬如日出多所見為棄諸冥。冥為苦。何以知為苦。多所罣礙故知為苦。何等為棄習。謂不作事。何等為盡證。謂無所有。道者明識苦斷習盡證念道。識從苦生。不得苦亦無有識。是為苦也。盡證者。謂知人盡當老病死證者知萬物皆當滅。是為盡證也。譬如日出作四事。一壞冥。謂慧能壞癡。二見明。謂癡除獨慧在。三見色萬物。為見身諸所有惡露。四成熟萬物。設無日月萬物不熟。人無有慧癡意亦不熟也。上頭行俱行者。所行事已行不分別說。謂行五直聲。身心并得行也。從諦念法意著法中。從諦念法意著所念。是便生是求生死。得生死求道。得道內外隨所起意。是為念法意著法中者。從四諦自知意生。是當得是不生是不得。是便卻意畏不敢犯。所行所念常在道。是為意著法中也。是名為法正從諦本起本著意。法正者謂道法。從諦謂四諦。本起著意者謂所向生死萬事。皆本從意起。便著意便有五陰所起意當斷。斷本五陰便斷。有時自斷不念。意自起為罪。復不定在道為罪。未盡故也。意著法中者。諦意念萬物為墮外法。中意不念萬物為墮道法中。五陰為生死法。三十七品經為道法。意著法中者。謂制五陰不犯。亦謂常念道不離。是為意著法中也。所本正者所在。外為物本為福所在。內總為三十七品經。行道非一時端故。言所本者。謂行三十七品經法。如次第隨行意不入邪為正故。名為所本。正所本正各自異行。以無為對本。以不求為對正。以無為為對無為。以不常為對道。以無有為對亦無有所。亦無有本。亦無有正。為無所有也。定覺受身。如是法道說謂法定。道說者謂說所從因緣得道。見陰受者為受五陰。有入者為入五陰中。因有生死陰者為受正。正者道自正。但當為自正心耳。人行安般守意。得數得相隨得止便歡喜。是四種譬如鑽火見煙不能熟物。得何等喜用未得出要故也

安般守意有十八惱。令人不隨道。一為愛欲。二為瞋恚。三為癡。四為戲樂。五為慢。六為疑。七為不受行相。八為受他人相。九為不念。十為他念。十一為不滿念。十二為過精進。十三為不及精進。十四為驚怖。十五為強制意。十六為憂。十七為匆匆。十八為不度意行愛。是為十八惱。不護是十八因緣不得道。以護便得道也。不受行相者。謂不觀三十二物。不念三十七品經。是為不受行相。受他人相者。謂未得十息便行相隨。是為受他人相。他念者。入息時念出息。出息時念入息。是為他念。不滿念者。謂未得一禪便念二禪。是為不滿念。強制意者。謂坐亂意不得息。當經行讀經以亂不起。是為強制意也。精進為黠。走是六事中。謂數息相隨止觀還淨。是為六也。何等為喘。何等為息。何等為氣。何等為力。何等為風。制者為意息。為命守。為氣。為視聽風。為能言語從道屈伸力。為能舉重瞋恚也。要從守意得道。何緣得守意。從數轉得息。息轉得相隨。止觀還淨亦爾也。行道欲得止意。當知三事。一者先觀念身本何從來。但從五陰行有。斷五陰不復生。譬如寄託須臾耳。意不解念九道以自證。二者自當內視心中隨息出入。三者出息入息念滅時息出小輕。念滅時何等為知無所有。意定便知空。知空便知無所有。何以故。息不報便死。知身但氣所作。氣滅為空。覺空墮道也。故行道有三事。一者觀身。二者念一心。三者念出入息。復有三事。一者止身痛痒。二者止口聲。三者止意念行。是六事疾得息也。要經言一念謂一心。近念謂計身。多念謂一心。不離念謂不離念。身行是四事。便疾得息也。坐禪數息即時定意。是為今福。遂安隱不亂。是為未來福。益久續復安定。是為過去福也。坐禪數息不得定意。是為今罪。遂不安隱亂意起。是為當來罪。坐禪益久遂不安定。是為過去罪也。亦有身過意過。身直數息不得。是為意過。身曲數息不得。是為身過也。坐禪自覺得定意。意喜為亂意。不喜為道意。坐禪念息已止便觀。觀止復行息。人行道當以是為常法也

佛說有五信。一者信有佛有經。二者去家下頭髮求道。三者坐行道。四者得息。五者定意所念不念為空難不念為空。何以故念息。報曰。息中無五色貪婬瞋恚愚癡愛欲。是亦為空也。可守身中意者。謂意在身觀。是為身中意。人不能制意故令數息。以黠能制意。不復數息也。問何等為自知。何等為自證報謂。能分別五陰是為自知。不疑道是為自證也。問曰。何等為無為。報無為有二輩。有外無為有內無為。眼不觀色。耳不聽聲。鼻不受香。口不味味。身不貪細滑。意不志念。是為外無為。數息相隨止觀還淨。是為內無為也。問現有所念何以為無為。報身口為戒。意向道行。雖有所念本趣無為也。問何等為無。何等名為。報無者謂不念萬物。為者隨經行指事稱名。故言無為也

問設使宿命對來到。當何以卻。報行數息相隨止觀還淨。念三十七品經能卻難。宿命對不可卻。數息行三十七品經。何以故能卻。報用念道故消惡。設使數息相隨止觀還淨不能滅惡。世間人皆不得道。用消惡故得道。數息相隨止觀還淨。行三十七品經尚得作佛。何況罪對。在十方積如山。精進行道不與罪會。問曰。經言作是何以故不會。報用作是故也。數息為墮十二品。何謂十二品。數息時墮四意止。息不亂時為墮四意念斷。得十息有時為墮四神足。是為墮十二品也

問何等為念三十七品經。報謂。數息相墮止觀還淨行。是六事是為念三十七品經也。行數息亦為行三十七品經。問何以故為行三十七品經。報數息為墮四意止。何以故。為四意止。亦墮四意斷。用不待念故為四意斷。亦墮四神足。用從信故為神足也。數息為墮信根。用信佛意喜故生信根。亦墮能根。用坐行根為墮能根。亦墮識根。用知諦故為識根。亦墮定根。用意安故為定根。亦墮黠根。用離癡意解結故為黠根也。數息亦墮信力。用不疑故為信力。亦墮進力。用精進故為進力。亦墮念力。用餘意不能攘故為念力。亦墮定力。用一心故為定力。亦墮黠力。用前分別四意止斷神足故為黠力也。數息亦墮覺意。用識苦故為覺意。亦墮法識覺意。用知道因緣故為法覺意。亦墮力覺意。用棄惡故為力覺意。亦墮愛覺意。用貪樂道故為愛覺意。亦墮息意覺。用意止故為息意覺。亦墮定覺意。用不念故為定覺意。亦墮守覺意。用行不離故為守覺意也。數息亦墮八行。用意正故入八行。定意慈心念淨法。是為直身。至誠語軟語直語不還語。是為直語。黠在意信在意忍辱在意。是為直心。所謂以聲息。是為十善墮道行也。數息亦墮直見。用諦觀故為直見。亦墮直行。用向道故為直行。亦墮直治。用行三十七品經故為直治。亦墮直意。用念諦故為直意。亦墮直定。用意白淨壞魔兵故為直定。是為八行。何等為魔兵。謂色聲香味細滑。是為魔兵。不受是為壞魔兵。三十七品應斂。設自觀身觀他人身止婬。不亂意止餘意。自觀痛痒觀他人痛痒止瞋恚。自觀意觀他人意止癡。自觀法觀他人法得道。是名為四意止也。避身為避色。避痛痒為避五樂。避意為避念避法。不墮願業治生。是名為四意念斷也。識苦者本為苦。為苦者為有身。從苦為因緣。起者所見萬物。苦習者本為苦。從苦為因緣生。盡者萬物皆當敗壞。為增苦習。復當為墮八道中。道人當念是八道。是名為四為四收苦。得四神足念也。信佛意喜。是名為信根。為自守行法。從諦身意受。是名能根為精進。從諦念遂諦。是名識根為守意。從諦一意。從諦一意止。是名定根為正意。從諦觀諦。是名黠根為道意。是名為五根也

從諦信不復疑。是名信力。棄貪行道從諦自精進。惡意不能敗精進。是名進力。惡意欲起當即時滅。從諦是意無有能壞意。是名念力。內外觀從諦以定。惡意不能壞善意。是名定力。念四禪從諦得黠。惡意不能壞黠意。是名黠力。念出入盡復生。是名為五力也。從諦念諦是名為覺意得道意。從諦觀諦是名法名法識覺意。得生死意。從諦身意持是名力覺意。持道不失為力。從諦足喜諦是名愛覺意。貪道法行道行道法。從諦意得休息。是名息意覺已息安隱。從諦一念意。是名定覺意。自知意以安定從諦自在意在所行從觀。是名守意覺。從四諦觀意。是名為七覺意也。從諦守諦。是名直信道。從諦直從行諦。是為直從行念道。從諦身意持。是名直治法。不欲墮四惡者。謂四顛倒。從諦念諦。是名直意不亂意。從諦一心意。是名直定。為一心上頭。為三法意行。俱行以聲身心。如是佛弟子八行。是名四禪。為四意斷也。第一行為直念屬心常念道。第二行為直語屬口斷四意。第三行為直觀屬身觀身內外。第四行為直見信道。第五行為直。行不隨四惡。謂四顛倒。第六行為直治斷餘意。第七行為直不墮貪欲。第八行為直定正心。是為八行。佛辟支佛阿羅漢所不行也。第一行為直念。何等為直念。謂不念萬物意不墮是中。是為直念。念萬物意墮中為不直念也。四意止者。一意止為身念息。二意止為念痛痒。三意止為念意息出入。四意止為念法因緣。是為四意止也

道人當念是四意止。一者為我前世愛身故不得脫。二者今有劇怨家。何以故。所欲者愛生。當斷已斷。為外身觀止也。四意止者。意止者意不在身為止意。不在痛痒為止意。不在意為止意。不在法為止意。隨色誠便生。是為不止也。問人何以故。不墮四意止。報用不念苦空非身不淨故。不墮四意止。若人意常念苦空非身不淨行道者。常念是四事不離。便疾得四意止也。問何等為身意止。謂念老病死是為身意止。何等為痛意止。謂所不可意是為痛意止。何等為意意止。謂已念復念是為意意止。何等為法意止。謂往時為行還報為法。亦謂作是得是。是為法意止也。四意止有四輩。一者念非常意止。二者念苦身意止。三者念空有意止。四者念不淨樂意止。是為四意止。一切天下事皆墮身痛。墮法都盧不過是四事也。四意止者。一者但念息不邪念。二者但念善不念惡。三者自念身非我所萬物皆非我所。便不復向。四者眼不視色意在法中。是名為四意止也。道人當行四意止。一者眼色。當校計身中惡露。二者意歡喜念樂。當念痛痒苦。三者我意瞋他人意亦瞋。我意轉他人意亦轉。便不復轉意。四意者我意嫉他人意亦嫉。我念他人惡他人亦念我惡。便不復念是為法也。身意止者自觀身觀他人身。何等為身。欲言痛痒是身。痛無有數。欲言意是身。復非身有過去意未來意。欲言法是身復非身有過去未來法。欲言行是身。行無有形知為非身。得是計為四意止也。意不墮色念識亦不生。耳鼻口身亦爾。意不在身為心意不在痛痒。意不在念意不在法為心也。問誰主知身意痛痒者。報有身身意知。痛痒痛痒意知。意意意意知有飢飢意知。有渴渴意知。有寒寒意知。有熱熱意知。以是分別知也。身意起身意。痛痒意起痛痒意。意意起意意。法意起法意。四意止謂意念惡制使不起。是為止也。四意止亦隨四禪。亦隨四意止。隨四意止為近道。不著惡便善意生。四禪為四意定為止意也。行道有四因緣。一止身。二止痛痒。三止意。四止法。止身者。謂見色念不淨。止痛痒者。謂不自貢高。止意者。謂止不瞋恚。止法者。謂不疑道人行四意止。意起念生即時識對行藥。得一意止。便得四意止也。四意定。一者自觀身亦復觀他人身。二者自觀痛痒亦復觀他人痛癢。三者自觀心亦復觀他人心。四者自觀法因緣亦復觀他人法因緣。如是身一切觀內外因緣成敗之事。當念我身。亦當成敗。如是是為四意定也。人欲止四意棄為外攝為內。已攝意為外棄為內也。觀他人身。謂自觀身不離他。便為觀他人身苦。觀他人身為非痛痒意法亦爾也。自貪身當觀他人身。念他人身。便自觀身。如是為意止。問意見行何以為止。報意以自觀身貪。便使觀他人身。為意從貪轉故應止。若意貪他人身。當還自觀身也

有時自身觀。不觀他人身。有時當觀他人身。不當自觀身。有時可自觀身。亦可觀他人身。有時不可自觀身。亦不可觀他人身。自觀身者為校計觀他人身。意不止須自念身為著便轉著他人身。觀他人身為見色肥白黛眉赤脣。見肥當念死人脹。見白當念死人骨。見眉黑當念死人正黑。見朱脣當念血正赤。校計身諸所有。以得是意便轉。不復愛身也。觀有內外。嫉恚疑當內觀。貪婬當外觀。貪當念非常敗。婬當念對所有惡露。如自觀身婬當念四斷意也。觀有兩輩。一者觀外。二者觀內。觀身有三十六物。一切有對皆屬外觀無所有為道。是為內觀也。觀有三事。一者觀身四色。謂黑青赤白。二者觀生死。三者觀九道。觀白見黑為不淨。當前聞以學。後得道未得道為聞得別為證得為知也。觀有四一者身觀。二者意觀。三者行觀。四者道觀。是為四觀。譬如人守物盜來便捨物。視盜人已得觀。便捨身觀物也

觀有二事。一者觀外諸所有色。二者觀內謂無所有。觀空已得四禪。觀空無所有。有意無意無所有。是為空。亦謂四棄得四禪也。欲斷世間事當行四意止。欲除四意止當行四意斷。人墮貪貪故。行四神足飛。但有五根無有五力不能制。但有五力無有五根不生得四神足。尚轉五力。能制上次十二品四意斷。不作現在罪但畢故罪。是為四意斷也。畢故不受新為四意止。故畢新止為四意斷。故竟新斷為四神足。知足不復求守意。意為畢。生為新老為故。死為身體壞敗為盡也。四意斷。謂常念道。善念生便惡念斷故。為斷息道。善念止便惡念生故。為不斷也。四意斷者。意自不欲向惡是為斷。亦謂不念罪斷也。四神足。一者身神足。二者口神足。三者意神足。四者道神足。念飛念不欲滅不隨道也。四伊提缽。四為數伊提為止缽為神足。欲飛便飛。有時精進坐七日便得。或七日或七歲也。得神足可久在世間。不死有藥。一者意不轉。二者信。三者念。四者有諦。五者有黠。是為神足藥也。得四神足不久在世間有三因緣。一者自厭其身臭惡故去。二者無有人能從受經道故去。三者恐怨惡人誹謗得罪故去也。神足九輩。謂乘車馬步疾走亦為神足。外戒堅亦為神足。至誠亦為神足。忍辱亦為神足也。行神足當飛意。問何為飛意。報有四因緣。一者信。二者精進。三者定。四者不轉意。何等為信。信飛行。何等為精進。飛行。何等定。飛行。何等為不轉意。謂著飛行不轉意也。身不欲行道。意欲行便行。神足如是意欲飛即能飛也。五根譬如種物堅乃生根不堅無有根。信為水雨。不轉意為力。所見萬物為根。制意為力也。信根中有三陰。一為痛痒。二為思想。三為識陰。定根中有一陰。謂識陰也

五根五力七覺意。中有一陰者。中有二陰者。中有三陰者。有四陰者。皆有陰。問是道行何緣有陰。報以泥洹無陰。餘皆有陰也。七覺意上三覺屬口。中三覺屬身。下一覺屬意。何等為覺。念念為覺。念念為得。覺得是意便隨道也。外七覺意為墮生死內。七覺意為隨道。內七覺意者。謂三十七品經。外七覺意者。謂萬物也。覺者為識事。便隨覺意也。有覺意便隨道。覺有覺意墮罪覺。三十七品經便正意是為隨道。覺善惡是為墮罪也。問何等為從諦身意持。報謂。身持七戒意持三戒。是為身意持也。從諦意得休息。從四諦意因緣休。休者為止息為思。得道為受思也。貪樂道法當行道為愛覺意。持道不失為力覺意。已得十息身安隱為息覺意。自知已安為定覺意。身意持意不走為持。從諦自在意在所行。謂得四諦。亦可念四意止。亦可四意斷。亦可四神足。亦可五根五力七覺意八行。是為自在意。在所行從諦觀者。為三十七品經要。是為守意覺者。謂諦不復受罪也。八行有內外。身為殺盜婬。聲為兩舌惡口妄言綺語。意為嫉妒癡。是上頭三法。為十事在外五道在內也。從諦守諦從為神守。為護謂法不犯罪。諦為道。知非常苦空非身不淨為直見。非常人計為常。思苦為樂。空計為有。非身用作身。不淨計為淨。是為不直見也。何等為直見。信本因緣知從宿命有。是名為直見。何等為直治。分別思惟能到善意。是為直治。何等為直語。守善言不犯法如應受言。是名為直語也。何等為直業。身應行不犯行。是名為直業也。何等為直治。隨得道者教戒行。是名為直治也。何等為直精進。行行無為晝夜不中止不捨方便。是名為直精進方便也。何等為直念。常向經戒。是名為直念。何等為直定。意不惑亦不捨行。是名為直定。如是行令賢者八業行具已行具足便行道也。八直有治有行行八直。乃得出要身不犯戒。是為直治。慧信忍辱是為行身。意持是名為直治。謂無所念為直。有所念為不直也。十二部經都皆墮三十七品經中。譬如萬川四流皆歸大海。三十七品經為外。思惟為內。思惟生道故為內。道人行道分別三十七品經。是為拜佛也。三十七品經亦墮世間亦墮道。諷經口說是為世間。意念是為應道。持戒為制身。禪為散意。行從願願亦從行。行道所向意不離。意至佛意不還也。亦有從次第行得道。亦有不從次行得道。謂行四意止斷神足五根五力七覺意八行。是為從次第。畏世間惡身便一念從是得道。是為不從次第。道人能得三十七品行意。可不順從數息相隨止也。身口七事心意識各有十事。故為三十七品。四意止斷神足屬外。五根五力屬內。七覺意八行得道也。泥洹有四十輩。謂三十七品經并三向。凡四十事皆為泥洹。問數息為泥洹非。報數息相隨鼻頭止意。有所著不為泥洹。泥洹為有不。報泥洹為無有。但為苦滅。一名意盡難泥洹為滅報但善惡滅耳。知行者。有時可行四意止。有時可行四意斷。有時可行四神足。有時可行五根五力七覺意八行。諦者為知定亂。定為知行。亂為不知行也。問何以故。正有五根五力七覺意八行。報人有五根道有五根。人有五力道有五力。人有七使道有七覺意。行有八直應道八種。隨病說藥因緣相應。眼受色耳聞聲鼻向香口欲味身貪細滑。是為五根。何以故名為根。已受當復生故名為根。不受色聲香味細滑是為力。不墮七使為覺意。已八直為應道行。五根堅意。五力為不轉意。七覺為正意。八行為直意也。問何等為善意。何等為道意。報謂。四意止斷神足五根五力。是為善意。七覺意八行。是為道意。有道善有世間善。從四意止至五根五力。是為道善。不婬兩舌惡口妄言綺語貪瞋癡。是為世間善。諦見者。知萬物皆當滅。是為諦見。萬物壞敗身當死。以不用為憂。是為諦觀。意橫意走便責對得制。是為除罪。諸來惡不受為禪。一心內意十二事智慧。七為數。八為相隨。九為止。十為觀。十一為還。十二為淨。是為內十二事。外復十二事。一為目。二為色。三為耳。四為聲。五為鼻。六為香。七為口。八為味。九為身。十為細滑。十一為意。十二為受欲。是為外十二事也。術闍者為智。凡有三智。一者知無數世父母兄弟妻子。二者知無數世白黑長短。知他人心中所念。三者毒以斷。是為三也。沙羅惰怠者為六通智。一為神足。二為徹聽。三為知他人意。四為知本所從來。五為知往生何所。六為知索漏盡。是為六也

佛說大安般守意經卷下

PHỤ LỤC 2

Bảng Anh văn
Kayagata-sati Sutta
(Majjhima Nikaya 119)

Mindfulness Immersed in the Body
For free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma by

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in at Jeta's Grove, 's monastery. Now at that time a large number of monks, after the meal, on returning from their alms round, had gathered at the meeting hall when this discussion arose: "Isn't it amazing, friends! Isn't it astounding! - the extent to which mindfulness immersed in the body, when developed & pursued, is said by the Blessed One who knows, who sees - the worthy one, rightly self-awakened - to be of great fruit & great benefit." And this discussion came to no conclusion. SavatthiAnathapindika

Then the Blessed One, emerging from his seclusion in the late afternoon, went to the meeting hall and, on arrival, sat down on a seat made ready. As he sat down there, he addressed the monks: "For what topic are you gathered together here? And what was the discussion that came to no conclusion?"

"Just now, lord, after the meal, on returning from our alms round, we gathered at the meeting hall when this discussion arose: `Isn't it amazing, friends! Isn't it astounding! - the extent to which mindfulness immersed in the body, when developed & pursued, is said by the Blessed One who knows, who sees - the worthy one, rightly self-awakened - to be of great fruit & great benefit.' This was the discussion that had come to no conclusion when the Blessed One arrived."

[The Blessed One said:] "And how is mindfulness immersed in the body developed, how is it pursued, so as to be of great fruit & great benefit?

"There is the case where a monk - having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building - sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect and setting mindfulness to the fore. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

"Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long. Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body. He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication (the breath) and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

"Furthermore, when walking, the monk discerns that he is walking. When standing, he discerns that he is standing. When sitting, he discerns that he is sitting. When lying down, he discerns that he is lying down. Or however his body is disposed, that is how he discerns it. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

"Furthermore, when going forward & returning, he makes himself fully alert; when looking toward & looking away...when bending & extending his limbs...when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe & his bowl...when eating, drinking, chewing, & savoring...when urinating & defecating...when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, & remaining silent, he makes himself fully alert. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

"Furthermore, the monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things: `In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.' a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain - wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice - and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, `This is wheat. This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked rice'; in the same way, the monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things: `In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.' And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body. Just as if

"Furthermore, the monk contemplates this very body - however it stands, however it is disposed - in terms of properties: `In this body there is the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, & the wind property.' skilled butcher or his apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the monk contemplates this very body - however it stands, however it is disposed - in terms of properties: `In this body there is the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, & the wind property.' And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body. Just as a

"Furthermore, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground - one day, two days, three days dead - bloated, livid, & festering, he applies it to this very body, `This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate'...

"Or again, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground, picked at by crows, vultures, & hawks, by dogs, hyenas, & various other creatures...a skeleton smeared with flesh & blood, connected with tendons...a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons...a skeleton without flesh or blood, connected with tendons...bones detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions - here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone, here a hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a chest bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a skull...the bones whitened, somewhat like the color of shells...piled up, more than a year old...decomposed into a powder: He applies it to this very body, `This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate.'

"And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

THE FOUR JHANAS

"Furthermore, quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, he enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He permeates & pervades, suffuses & fills this very body with the rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal. a skilled bathman or bathman's apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again & again with water, so that his ball of bath powder - saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within & without - would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates...this very body with the rapture & pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body. Just as if

"And furthermore, with the stilling of directed thought & evaluation, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation - internal assurance. He permeates & pervades, suffuses & fills this very body with the rapture & pleasure born of composure. a lake with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from the east, west, north, or south, and with the skies supplying abundant showers time & again, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate & pervade, suffuse & fill it with cool waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates ... this very body with the rapture & pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture & pleasure born of composure. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body. Just like

"And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, mindful & alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare, `Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.' He permeates & pervades, suffuses & fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. a lotus pond, some of the lotuses, born & growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated & pervaded, suffused & filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates ... this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body. Just as in

"And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure & pain - as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress - he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness. And as he remains thus heedful, ardent, & resolute, any memories & resolves related to the household life are abandoned, and with their abandoning his mind gathers & settles inwardly, grows unified & centered. This is how a monk develops mindfulness immersed in the body.

FULLNESS OF MIND "Monks, whoever develops & pursues mindfulness immersed in the body encompasses whatever skillful qualities are on the side of clear knowing. Just as whoever pervades the great ocean with his awareness encompasses whatever rivulets flow down into the ocean, in the same way, whoever develops & pursues mindfulness immersed in the body encompasses whatever skillful qualities are on the side of clear knowing.

"In whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is not developed, not pursued, Mara gains entry, Mara gains a foothold.

" that a man were to throw a heavy stone ball into a pile of wet clay. What do you think, monks - would the heavy stone ball gain entry into the pile of wet clay?" Suppose

"Yes, venerable sir."

"In the same way, in whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is not developed, not pursued, Mara gains entry, Mara gains a foothold.

"Now, there were a dry, sapless piece of timber, and a man were to come along with an upper fire-stick, thinking, `I'll light a fire. I'll produce heat.' What do you think - would he be able to light a fire and produce heat by rubbing the upper fire-stick in the dry, sapless piece of timber?" suppose that

"Yes, venerable sir."

"In the same way, in whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is not developed, not pursued, Mara gains entry, Mara gains a foothold.

"Now, there were an empty, hollow water-pot set on a stand, and a man were to come along carrying a load of water. What do you think - would he get a place to put his water?" suppose that

"Yes, venerable sir."

"In the same way, in whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is not developed, not pursued, Mara gains entry, Mara gains a foothold.

"Now, in whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is developed, is pursued, Mara gains no entry, Mara gains no foothold. a man were to throw a ball of string against a door panel made entirely of heartwood. What do you think - would that light ball of string gain entry into that door panel made entirely of heartwood?" Suppose that

"No, venerable sir."

"In the same way, in whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is developed, is pursued, Mara gains no entry, Mara gains no foothold.

"Now, there were a wet, sappy piece of timber, and a man were to come along with an upper fire-stick, thinking, `I'll light a fire. I'll produce heat.' What do you think - would he be able to light a fire and produce heat by rubbing the upper fire-stick in the wet, sappy piece of timber?" suppose that

"No, venerable sir."

"In the same way, in whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is developed, is pursued, Mara gains no entry, Mara gains no foothold.

"Now, there were a water-pot set on a stand, full of water up to the brim so that crows could drink out of it, and a man were to come along carrying a load of water. What do you think - would he get a place to put his water?" suppose that

"No, lord."

"In the same way, in whomever mindfulness immersed in the body is developed, is pursued, Mara gains no entry, Mara gains no foothold.

AN OPENING TO THE HIGHER KNOWLEDGES

"When anyone has developed & pursued mindfulness immersed in the body, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

" there were a water jar, set on a stand, brimful of water so that a crow could drink from it. If a strong man were to tip it in any way at all, would water spill out?" Suppose that

"Yes, lord."

"In the same way, when anyone has developed & pursued mindfulness immersed in the body, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

" were a rectangular water tank - set on level ground, bounded by dikes - brimful of water so that a crow could drink from it. If a strong man were to loosen the dikes anywhere at all, would water spill out?" Suppose there

"Yes, lord."

"In the same way, when anyone has developed & pursued mindfulness immersed in the body, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

" were a chariot on level ground at four crossroads, harnessed to thoroughbreds, waiting with whips lying ready, so that a skilled driver, a trainer of tamable horses, might mount and - taking the reins with his left hand and the whip with his right - drive out & back, to whatever place & by whichever road he liked; in the same way, when anyone has developed & pursued mindfulness immersed in the body, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening. Suppose there

TEN BENEFITS

"Monks, for one in whom mindfulness immersed in the body is cultivated, developed, pursued, given a means of transport, given a grounding, steadied, consolidated, & well-undertaken, ten benefits can be expected. Which ten?

"[1] He conquers displeasure & delight, and displeasure does not conquer him. He remains victorious over any displeasure that has arisen.

"[2] He conquers fear & dread, and fear & dread to not conquer him. He remains victorious over any fear & dread that have arisen.

"[3] He is resistant to cold, heat, hunger, thirst, the touch of gadflies & mosquitoes, wind & sun & creeping things; to abusive, hurtful language; he is the sort that can endure bodily feelings that, when they arise, are painful, sharp, stabbing, fierce, distasteful, disagreeable, deadly.

"[4] He can attain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhanas - heightened mental states providing a pleasant abiding in the here & now.

"[5] He wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, & mountains as if through space. He dives in & out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting crosslegged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches & strokes even the sun & moon, so mighty & powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

"[6] He hears - by means of the divine ear-element, purified & surpassing the human - both kinds of sounds: divine & human, whether near or far.

"[7] He knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with aversion, and a mind without aversion as a mind without aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind [one that is not an the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He discerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind.

"[8] He recollects his manifold past lives (lit: previous homes), i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction & expansion, [recollecting], `There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.' Thus he remembers his manifold past lives in their modes & details.

"[9] He sees - by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human - beings passing away & re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: `These beings - who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, & mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views - with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings - who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, & mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views - with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.' Thus - by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human - he sees beings passing away & re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their kamma.

"[10] Through the ending of the mental effluents, he remains in the effluent-free release of awareness & release of discernment, having known and made them manifest for himself right in the here & now.

"Monks, for one in whom mindfulness immersed in the body is cultivated, developed, pursued, given a means of transport, given a grounding, steadied, consolidated, & well-undertaken, these ten benefits can be expected."

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.

Anapanasati Sutta Majjhima Nikaya 118

Mindfulness of Breathing (Anapanasati Sutta)

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu

For free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara's mother, together will many well-known elder disciples - with Ven. Sariputta, Ven. Maha Moggallana, Ven. Maha Kassapa, Ven. Maha Kaccayana, Ven. Maha Kotthita, Ven. Maha Kappina, Ven. Maha Cunda, Ven. Revata, Ven. Ananda, and other well-known elder disciples. On that occasion the elder monks were teaching & instructing. Some elder monks were teaching & instructing ten monks, some were teaching & instructing twenty monks, some were teaching & instructing thirty monks, some were teaching & instructing forty monks. The new monks, being taught & instructed by the elder monks, were discerning grand, successive distinctions.

Now on that occasion - the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the full-moon night of the Pavarana ceremony - the Blessed One was seated in the open air surrounded by the community of monks. Surveying the silent community of monks, he addressed them:

"Monks, I am content with this practice. I am content at heart with this practice. So arouse even more intense persistence for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. I will remain right here at Savatthi [for another month] through the 'White water-lily' month, the fourth month of the rains."

The monks in the countryside heard, "The Blessed One, they say, will remain right there at Savatthi through the White water-lily month, the fourth month of the rains." So they left for Savatthi to see the Blessed One.

Then the elder monks taught & instructed even more intensely. Some elder monks were teaching & instructing ten monks, some were teaching & instructing twenty monks, some were teaching & instructing thirty monks, some were teaching & instructing forty monks. The new monks, being taught & instructed by the elder monks, were discerning grand, successive distinctions.

Now on that occasion - the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the full-moon night of the White water-lily month, the fourth month of the rains - the Blessed One was seated in the open air surrounded by the community of monks. Surveying the silent community of monks, he addressed them:

"Monks, this assembly is free from idle chatter, devoid of idle chatter, and is established on pure heartwood: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly to which a small gift, when given, becomes great, and a great gift greater: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that it is rare to see in the world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly - the sort of assembly that it would be worth traveling for leagues, taking along provisions, in order to see.

"In this community of monks there are monks who are Arahants, whose mental effluents are ended, who have reached fulfillment, done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed the fetter of becoming, and who are released through right gnosis: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who, with the total ending of the first set of five fetters, are due to be reborn [in the Pure Abodes], there to be totally unbound, never again to return from that world: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who, with the total ending of [the first] three fetters, and with the attenuation of passion, aversion, & delusion, are once-returners, who - on returning only one more time to this world - will make an ending to stress: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who, with the total ending of [the first] three fetters, are stream-winners, steadfast, never again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who remain devoted to the development of the four frames of reference ... the four right exertions ... the four bases of power ... the five faculties ... the five strengths ... the seven factors of awakening ... the noble eightfold path: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who remain devoted to the development of good will ... compassion ... appreciation ... equanimity ... [the perception of the] foulness [of the body] ... the perception of inconstancy: such are the monks in this community of monks.

"In this community of monks there are monks who remain devoted to mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

"Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, is of great fruit, of great benefit. Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, brings the four frames of reference to their culmination. The four frames of reference, when developed & pursued, bring the seven factors of awakening to their culmination. The seven factors of awakening, when developed & pursued, bring clear knowing & release to their culmination.

Mindfulness of In-&-Out Breathing

"Now how is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing developed & pursued so as to bring the four frames of reference to their culmination?

"There is the case where a monk, having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect, and setting mindfulness to the fore. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

"[1] Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long. [2] Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short. [3] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body, and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body. [4] He trains himself to breathe in calming the bodily processes, and to breathe out calming the bodily processes.

"[5] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to rapture, and to breathe out sensitive to rapture. [6] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to pleasure, and to breathe out sensitive to pleasure. [7] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to mental processes, and to breathe out sensitive to mental processes. [8] He trains himself to breathe in calming mental processes, and to breathe out calming mental processes.

"[9] He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the mind, and to breathe out sensitive to the mind. [10] He trains himself to breathe in satisfying the mind, and to breathe out satisfying the mind. [11] He trains himself to breathe in steadying the mind, and to breathe out steadying the mind. [12] He trains himself to breathe in releasing the mind, and to breathe out releasing the mind.

"[13] He trains himself to breathe in focusing on inconstancy, and to breathe out focusing on inconstancy. [14] He trains himself to breathe in focusing on dispassion [literally, fading], and to breathe out focusing on dispassion. [15] He trains himself to breathe in focusing on cessation, and to breathe out focusing on cessation. [16] He trains himself to breathe in focusing on relinquishment, and to breathe out focusing on relinquishment.

The Four Frames of Reference

"[1] Now, on whatever occasion a monk breathing in long discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, discerns that he is breathing out long; or breathing in short, discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, discerns that he is breathing out short; trains himself to breathe in...&...out sensitive to the entire body; trains himself to breathe in...&...out calming the bodily processes: On that occasion the monk remains focused on the body in & of itself - ardent, alert, & mindful - subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. I tell you, monks, that this - the in-&-out breath - is classed as a body among bodies, which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on the body in & of itself - ardent, alert, & mindful - putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

"[2] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself to breathe in...&...out sensitive to rapture; trains himself to breathe in...&...out sensitive to pleasure; trains himself to breathe in...&...out sensitive to mental processes; trains himself to breathe in...&...out calming mental processes: On that occasion the monk remains focused on feelings in & of themselves - ardent, alert, & mindful - subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. I tell you, monks, that this - close attention to in-&-out breaths - is classed as a feeling among feelings, which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on feelings in & of themselves - ardent, alert, & mindful - putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

"[3] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself to breathe in...&...out sensitive to the mind; trains himself to breathe in...&...out satisfying the mind; trains himself to breathe in...&...out steadying the mind; trains himself to breathe in...&...out releasing the mind: On that occasion the monk remains focused on the mind in & of itself - ardent, alert, & mindful - subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. I don't say that there is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing in one of confused mindfulness and no alertness, which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on the mind in & of itself - ardent, alert, & mindful - putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

"[4] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself to breathe in...&...out focusing on inconstancy; trains himself to breathe in...&...out focusing on dispassion; trains himself to breathe in...&...out focusing on cessation; trains himself to breathe in...&...out focusing on relinquishment: On that occasion the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves - ardent, alert, & mindful - subduing greed & distress with reference to the world. He who sees clearly with discernment the abandoning of greed & distress is one who oversees with equanimity, which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves - ardent, alert, & mindful - putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

"This is how mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to bring the four frames of reference to their culmination.

The Seven Factors Of Awakening

"And how are the four frames of reference developed & pursued so as to bring the seven factors of awakening to their culmination?

"[1] On whatever occasion the monk remains focused on the body in & of itself - ardent, alert, & mindful - putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world, on that occasion his mindfulness is steady & without lapse. When his mindfulness is steady & without lapse, then mindfulness as a factor of awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

"[2] Remaining mindful in this way, he examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment. When he remains mindful in this way, examining, analyzing, & coming to a comprehension of that quality with discernment, then analysis of qualities as a factor of awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

"[3] In one who examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment, unflagging persistence is aroused. When unflagging persistence is aroused in one who examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment, then persistence as a factor of awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

"[4] In one whose persistence is aroused, a rapture not-of-the-flesh arises. When a rapture not-of-the-flesh arises in one whose persistence is aroused, then rapture as a factor of awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

"[5] For one who is enraptured, the body grows calm and the mind grows calm. When the body & mind of an enraptured monk grow calm, then serenity as a factor of awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

"[6] For one who is at ease - his body calmed - the mind becomes concentrated. When the mind of one who is at ease - his body calmed - becomes concentrated, then concentration as a factor of awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

"[7] He oversees the mind thus concentrated with equanimity. When he oversees the mind thus concentrated with equanimity, equanimity as a factor of awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

[Similarly with the other three frames of reference: feelings, mind, & mental qualities.]

"This is how the four frames of reference are developed & pursued so as to bring the seven factors of awakening to their culmination.

Clear Knowing & Release

"And how are the seven factors of awakening developed & pursued so as to bring clear knowing & release to their culmination? There is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor of awakening dependent on seclusion ... dispassion ... cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops analysis of qualities as a factor of awakening ... persistence as a factor of awakening ... rapture as a factor of awakening ... serenity as a factor of awakening... concentration as a factor of awakening ... equanimity as a factor of awakening dependent on seclusion ... dispassion ... cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

"This is how the seven factors of awakening, when developed & pursued, bring clear knowing & release to their culmination."

That is what the Blessed One said. Glad at heart, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.

Majjhima Nikaya 10

Satipatthana Sutta

Frames of Reference

For free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in the Kuru country. Now there is a town of the Kurus called Kammasadhamma. There the Blessed One addressed the monks, "Monks."

"Venerable sir," the monks replied.

The Blessed One said this: "This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding -- in other words, the four frames of reference. Which four?

"There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself -- ardent, alert, & mindful -- putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings...mind...mental qualities in & of themselves -- ardent, alert, & mindful -- putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

(A. Body)

"And how does a monk remain focused on the body in & of itself?

[1] "There is the case where a monk -- having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building -- sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect and setting mindfulness to the fore [lit: the front of the chest]. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

"Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long. Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short. He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body. He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication. Just as a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, discerns that he is making a long turn, or when making a short turn discerns that he is making a short turn; in the same way the monk, when breathing in long, discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short...He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication, and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[2] "Furthermore, when walking, the monk discerns that he is walking. When standing, he discerns that he is standing. When sitting, he discerns that he is sitting. When lying down, he discerns that he is lying down. Or however his body is disposed, that is how he discerns it.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[3] "Furthermore, when going forward & returning, he makes himself fully alert; when looking toward & looking away...when bending & extending his limbs...when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe & his bowl...when eating, drinking, chewing, & savoring...when urinating & defecating...when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, & remaining silent, he makes himself fully alert.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[4] "Furthermore...just as if a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain -- wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice -- and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, 'This is wheat. This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked rice,' in the same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things: 'In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.'

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[5] "Furthermore...just as a skilled butcher or his apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the monk contemplates this very body -- however it stands, however it is disposed -- in terms of properties: 'In this body there is the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, & the wind property.'

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

[6] "Furthermore, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground -- one day, two days, three days dead -- bloated, livid, & festering, he applies it to this very body, 'This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate'...

"Or again, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground, picked at by crows, vultures, & hawks, by dogs, hyenas, & various other creatures...a skeleton smeared with flesh & blood, connected with tendons...a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons...a skeleton without flesh or blood, connected with tendons...bones detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions -- here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone, here a hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a chest bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a skull...the bones whitened, somewhat like the color of shells...piled up, more than a year old...decomposed into a powder: He applies it to this very body, 'This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate.'

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself, or externally on the body in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the body in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself.

(B. Feelings)

"And how does a monk remain focused on feelings in & of themselves? There is the case where a monk, when feeling a painful feeling, discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling. When feeling a pleasant feeling, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.

"When feeling a painful feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling of the flesh. When feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh. When feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh. When feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh.

"In this way he remains focused internally on feelings in & of themselves, or externally on feelings in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on feelings in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to feelings, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to feelings, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to feelings. Or his mindfulness that 'There are feelings' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on feelings in & of themselves.

(C. Mind)

"And how does a monk remain focused on the mind in & of itself? There is the case where a monk, when the mind has passion, discerns that the mind has passion. When the mind is without passion, he discerns that the mind is without passion. When the mind has aversion, he discerns that the mind has aversion. When the mind is without aversion, he discerns that the mind is without aversion. When the mind has delusion, he discerns that the mind has delusion. When the mind is without delusion, he discerns that the mind is without delusion.

"When the mind is restricted, he discerns that the mind is restricted. When the mind is scattered, he discerns that the mind is scattered. When the mind is enlarged, he discerns that the mind is enlarged. When the mind is not enlarged, he discerns that the mind is not enlarged. When the mind is surpassed, he discerns that the mind is surpassed. When the mind is unsurpassed, he discerns that the mind is unsurpassed. When the mind is concentrated, he discerns that the mind is concentrated. When the mind is not concentrated, he discerns that the mind is not concentrated. When the mind is released, he discerns that the mind is released. When the mind is not released, he discerns that the mind is not released.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the mind in & of itself, or externally on the mind in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the mind in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the mind, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the mind, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the mind. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a mind' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the mind in & of itself.

(D. Mental Qualities)

"And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves?

[1] "There is the case where a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances? There is the case where, there being sensual desire present within, a monk discerns that 'There is sensual desire present within me.' Or, there being no sensual desire present within, he discerns that 'There is no sensual desire present within me.' He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen sensual desire. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of sensual desire once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no further appearance in the future of sensual desire that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining hindrances: ill will, sloth & drowsiness, restlessness & anxiety, and uncertainty.)

five hindrances.

"In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on mental qualities in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to mental qualities. Or his mindfulness that 'There are mental qualities' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five hindrances.

[2] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance? There is the case where a monk [discerns]: 'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance. Such is feeling... Such is perception...Such are fabrications...Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'

five aggregates for clinging/sustenance.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in & of themselves, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance.

[3] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media? There is the case where he discerns the eye, he discerns forms, he discerns the fetter that arises dependent on both. He discerns how there is the arising of an unarisen fetter. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of a fetter once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no further appearance in the future of a fetter that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining sense media: ear, nose, tongue, body, & intellect.)

sixfold internal & external sense media.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in & of themselves, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal & external sense media.

[4] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors of awakening? There is the case where, there being mindfulness as a factor of awakening present within, he discerns that 'Mindfulness as a factor of awakening is present within me.' Or, there being no mindfulness as a factor of awakening present within, he discerns that 'Mindfulness as a factor of awakening is not present within me.' He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor of awakening. And he discerns how there is the culmination of the development of mindfulness as a factor of awakening once it has arisen. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining factors of awakening: analysis of qualities, persistence, rapture, serenity, concentration, & equanimity.)

seven factors of awakening.

"In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally...unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the seven factors of awakening.

[5] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths? There is the case where he discerns, as it is actually present, that 'This is stress...This is the origination of stress...This is the cessation of stress...This is the way leading to the cessation of stress.' []

four noble truths.1

"In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or externally on mental qualities in & of themselves, or both internally & externally on mental qualities in & of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to mental qualities. Or his mindfulness that 'There are mental qualities' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of themselves with reference to the four noble truths...

(E. Conclusion)

"Now, if anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for seven years, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here & now, or -- if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance -- non-return.

"Let alone seven years. If anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for six years...five...four...three...two years...one year...seven months...six months...five...four...three...two months...one month...half a month, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here & now, or -- if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance -- non-return.

"Let alone half a month. If anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for seven days, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here & now, or -- if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance -- non-return.

"'This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding -- in other words, the four frames of reference.' Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said."

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.




CHÚ THÍCH



[1] Huệ Hạo trong Cao Tăng truyện 1 ĐTK 2059 tờ 324a 27- b1 trích một đoạn thế này: “Khương Tăng Hội chú thích kinh ù, đề tựa nói: “Kinh này do Thế Cao dịch, lâu bị chìm che, nhờ gặp Hàn Lâm từ Nam Dương, Bỉ Nghiệp từ Dĩnh Xuyên, Trần Huệ từ Cối Kê, ba vị hiền này tin đạo dốc lòng, Hội cũng xin hỏi. Nên Trần Huệ giải nghĩa. Tôi giúp châm chước”An Ban Thủ y

[2] Kinh này xét bài tựa đầu kinh và xem văn kinh thì hình như là người chép lãnh kinh chứ không phân tích ra mà chép liền vào. Đáng lẽ phải cắt ra mà chú, nhưng thường có nhiều chỗ không thể thêm nên không dám tự tiện cắt ra, xin để lại cho các bậc hậu hiền

[3] Về Mâu Tử, xem thêm Lê Mạnh Thát, nghiên cứu về Mâu Tư,û Sài Gòn,Vạn Hạnh ,1974.

[4] Lê Mạnh Thát, , tu thư Vạn Hạnh, 1974Sơ khảo lịch sử Phật giáo Việt Nam II

[5] Kinh Hán tạng tương đương là Trị ý kinh (Đại 1,919).

[6] Trong khi tu thiền với các nghiệp xứ Kammatthana. Xem M.A. iv. 137. D.1.233.

[7] Lễ Tự tứ tổ chức sau mùa an cư.

[8] Araddha, giải thích là Tuttha. M.A. 137.

[9] Komudim Càtumasinim xem B.D.ii. 157. Số 3.iv.137 nói, gọi là Komudi vì có sen trắng và gọi Càtumasini vì là cuối tháng tư mùa an cư.

[10] Sau ngày rằm Kattika.

[11] Putosenàpi M.A. iv . 139 chép Putamsena. Xem G.S.ii .192.số 1.

[12] Xem M.i.424 v.v…

[13] Vijjàvimutti,như S.v. 28.335.

[14] Xem M.Kinh số 10; M.425 A.v. III. Và Anapana Samyutta (S.v.311).

[15] Kàyesu.M.A. iv: 140 – đây chỉ cho một trong bốn đại và đây chỉ cho phong đại ( Vàyokàya). Hay thân này thuộc về sắc pháp. Ở đây hơi thở được xem thuộc về thân vì gồm vào trong các xúc. Vị này hoặc xem phong đại là 1 trong bốn thân hay xem hơi thở là 1 trong 25 sắc pháp.

[16] Sự triền cái của dục vọng là tham,sự triền cái của sân là ưu.

[17] Sau khi biết được đã đoạn trừ, mới đến quán những gì là vô thường, viễn ly đoạn diệt và đọan trừ.

[18] Ajjhupekkhita vị ấy nhìn đối tượng tu hành hay sự vật, không bị chúng ảnh hưởng, với niệm xả ly M.A.iv.142.

[19] Xem M.iii.275.

[20] M.A.iv.144 nói trong kinh này, nhập tức xuất tức niệm, thuộc về thế gian, đưa đến sự viên mãn bốn niệm xứ cũng thuộc thế gian. Và bốn niệm xứ đưa đến sự viên mãn bảy giác chi cũng thuộc thế gian. Và bảy giác chi đưa đến chứng đạt cứu cánh niết bàn và quả giải thoát nhờ chánh tri.

[21] Kinh hán tạng tương đương là kinh niệm thân kinh (Đại 1.554 c)

[22] Như kinh số 118, kinh số 119 là một phần của kinh satipatthana số 10 cũng xem A. I 43.Vbh 226.

[23] Đây gồm cả Sâmtha (chỉ) và Vipassana (quán) M.A.iv.144.

[24] Xem kinh M.i 56 v.v…

[25] Sarasankappa, như M.i .453.iii 132 S. iv.76.190.

[26] Gehasita, thuộc vào cư sĩ, như tư tưởng thuộc về 5 loại dục lạc.

[27] Xem M.i. 56.

[28] Như M.i.276.278.

[29] Paripphosakam Paripphosakam. Như M.i.276.ii.15.iii,140 D.i.74 xemP.E.D.

[30] Các đoạn văn tương đương ở M. i276-278 chấm dưt ở đây.

[31] Về đoạn này, xem A.i .43, các thiện pháp thuộc minh phần Dhamma Vijabhgi và được kể là sáu. Ở A. iii, 334vô thường tưởng, khổ tưởng trong vô thường, vô ngã tưởng trong khổ, đọan trù tưởng, viễn ly tưởng, diệt tưởng. Nhưng M.A..iv.145 nói ở đây, quán trí, thần thông do thắng trí, sáu thắng trí đều câu hữu với trí.

[32] Với thiên nhãn. M.A. iv. 145.

[33] Xem M.1. 242

[34] Bài kinh này còn thiếu 9 chú thích!

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