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Kinh Nhất Dạ Hiền Giả

30/11/201004:47(Xem: 2785)
Kinh Nhất Dạ Hiền Giả
majjhimanikaya_kinhtrungbo

KINH NHẤT DẠ HIỀN GIẢ

Hòa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt
(Trích trong: Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikàya) 131)

Như vầy tôi nghe.

Một thời Thế Tôn ởSavatthi (Xá-vệ), Jetavana (Kỳ-đà lâm), tại tịnh xá ông Anathapindika(Cấp Cô Độc). Ở đấy Thế Tôn gọi các Tỷ-kheo: "Này cácTỷ-kheo". --"Thưa vâng, bạch Thế Tôn". Các vị Tỷ-kheo ấyvâng đáp Thế Tôn. Thế Tôn nói như sau:

-- Này các Tỷ-kheo, Tasẽ thuyết giảng cho các Ông: 'Nhứt dạ Hiền giả' (Bhaddekaratta),tổng thuyết và biệt thuyết. Hãy nghe và suy nghiệm kỹ, Tasẽ thuyết giảng.

-- Thưa vâng, bạch ThếTôn.

Các Tỷ-kheo ấy vângđáp Thế Tôn. Thế Tôn giảng như sau:

Quá khứ khôngtruy tìm
Tương lai không ướcvọng.
Quá khứ đã đoạntận,
Tương lai lại chưađến,
Chỉ có pháp hiệntại
Tuệ quán chính ởđây.
Không động, khôngrung chuyển
Biết vậy, nên tu tập,
Hôm nay nhiệt tâmlàm,
Ai biết chết ngàymai?
Không ai điều đìnhđược,
Với đại quân thầnchết,
Trú như vậy nhiệttâm,
Đêm ngày không mệtmỏi,
Xứng gọi Nhứt dạHiền,
Bậc an tịnh, trầmlặng.
Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thếnào là truy tìm quá khứ?Vị ấy nghĩ: "Như vậy là sắc củatôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Nhưvậy là thọ của tôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoantrong ấy; "Như vậy là tưởng của tôi trong quá khứ", vàtruy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là hành của tôi trongquá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy, "Như vậy, làthức của tôi trong quá khứ", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trongấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là truy tìm quá khứ.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,thế nào là không truy tìm quá khứ? Vị ấy nghĩ: "Như vậylà sắc của tôi trong quá khứ", và không truy tìm sự hânhoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là thọ của tôi trong quá khứ", vàkhông truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Như vậy là tưởng củatôi... Như vậy là hành của tôi... Như vậy là thức củatôi trong quá khứ"; và không truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy.Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là không truy tìm quá khứ.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,thế nào ước vọng tương lai? Vị ấy nghĩ: "Mong rằng nhưvậy sẽ là sắc của tôi trong tương lai", và truy tìm sựhân hoan trong ấy; "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là thọ của tôitrong tương lai", và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; "Mong rằngnhư vậy là tưởng của tôi... là hành của tôi... Như vậylà thức của tôi trong tương lai", và truy tìm sự hân hoantrong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là ước vọng trong tươnglai.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,thế nào là không ước vọng trong tương lai? Vị ấy nghĩ:"Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là sắc của tôi trong tương lai", vàkhông truy tìm hân hoan trong ấy; "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ làthọ của tôi trong tương lai", và không truy tìm hân hoan trongấy; "Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là tưởng... sẽ là hành... sẽlà thức của tôi trong tương lai, "và không truy tìm hân hoantrong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là ước vọng trong tươnglai.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,như thế nào là bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại?Ởđây, này các Tỷ-kheo, có kẻ vô văn phàm phu không đi đếncác bậc Thánh, không thuần thục pháp các bậc Thánh, khôngtu tập pháp các bậc Thánh; không đi đến các bậc Chân nhân,không thuần thục pháp các bậc Chân nhân, không tu tập phápcác bậc Chân nhân; quán sắc là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngãlà có sắc, hay quán sắc là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngãlà trong sắc, hay vị ấy quán thọ là tự ngã, hay quán tựngã là có thọ; hay quán thọ là trong tự ngã, hay quán tựngã là trong thọ, hay vị ấy quán tưởng là trong tự ngã,hay quán tự ngã là có tưởng, hay vị ấy quán tưởng làtự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là có tưởng, hay vị ấy quán hànhlà tự ngã, hay vị ấy quán tự ngã là có hành, hay vị ấyquán hành là trong tự ngã, hay vị ấy quán tự ngã là tronghành; hay vị ấy quán thức là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã làcó thức, hay quán thức là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã làtrong thức. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là bị lôi cuốntrongcác pháp hiện tại.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,thế nào là không bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại? Ởđây, này các Tỷ-kheo, có vị Đa văn Thánh đệ tử đi đếncác bậc Thánh, thuần thục pháp các bậc Thánh, tu tập phápcác bậc Thánh, đi đến các bậc Chân nhân, thuần thục phápcác bậc Chân nhân, tu tập pháp các bậc Chân nhân. Vị nàykhông quán sắc là tự ngã, không quán tự ngã là có sắc,không quán sắc là trong tự ngã, không quán tự ngã trong sắc;không quán thọ... không quán tưởng... không quán hành... khôngquán thức là tự ngã, không quán tự ngã là có thức, khôngquán thức trong tự ngã, không quán tự ngã trong thức. Nhưvậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là không bị lôi cuốn trong các pháphiện tại.

Quá khứ khôngtruy tìm
Tương lai không ướcvọng.
Quá khứ đã đoạntận,
Tương lai lại chưađến,
Chỉ có pháp hiệntại
Tuệ quán chính ởđây.
Không động, khôngrung chuyển
Biết vậy, nên tutập,
Hôm nay nhiệt tâmlàm,
Ai biết chết ngàymai?
Không ai điều đìnhđược,
Với đại quân thầnchết,
Trú như vậy nhiệttâm,
Đêm ngày không mệtmỏi,
Xứng gọi Nhứt dạHiền,
Bậc an tịnh, trầmlặng.
Khi ta nói: "Này các Tỷ-kheo,Ta sẽ giảng cho các Ông: 'Nhứt dạ Hiền giả', tổng thuyếtvà biệt thuyết", chính duyên ở đây mà nói vậy.

Thế Tôn thuyết giảngnhư vậy. Các Tỷ-kheo ấy hoan hỷ, tín thọ lời dạy củaThế Tôn.

Hòathượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt
Trích trong: Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikàya) 131

MajjhimaNikaya 131
BhaddekarattaSutta
AnAuspiciousDay
Translatedby Bhikkhu Thanissaro


Translator's Introduction

The title of this discoursehas sparked some controversy, centered on the word "ratta." Modern translatorsin Asian vernaculars are unanimous in rendering it as "night," a readingseconded by Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the discourse. Translatorsworking in English have balked at this reading, however, on the groundsthat the title it yields -- "Auspicious One-Night" -- makes no sense. ThusI.B. Horner drops the word "ratta" for her translation entirely; Ven Ñanamolirenders it as "attachment," yielding "One Fortunate Attachment"; and Ven.Ñanananda, taking his cue from Ven. Ñanamoli, renders it as "lover,"yielding "Ideal Lover of Solitude."

If we look at idiomaticPali usage, though, we find that there is good reason to stick with thetraditional reading of "night." There is a tendency in the Pali Canon tospeak of a 24-hour period of day and night as a "night." This would benatural for a society that used a lunar calendar -- marking the passageof time by the phases of the moon -- just as it is natural for us, usinga solar calendar, to call the same period of time a "day." As the versethat forms the summary of this discourse explicitly mentions one practicing"relentlessly both day and night," the "night" in the title of the discoursewould seem to be a 24-hour, rather than a 12-hour, night -- and so I havechosen to render the Pali idiom into its English equivalent: An AuspiciousDay.

Ven. Ñanamoli is probablyright in assuming that "bhaddekaratta" was a pre-Buddhist term that theBuddha adopted and re-interpreted in light of his own teaching. The pointof the discourse would thus be that -- instead of the play of cosmic forces,the stars, or the lucky omens -- one's own development of the mind's attitudeto time is what makes a day auspicious.



I have heard that on oneoccasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi, at Jetavana, the parkof Anathapindika. There he addressed the monks: "Monks!"

"Yes, lord," the monks replied.

The Blessed One said: "Monks,I will teach you the summary and exposition of one who has had an auspiciousday. Listen and pay close attention. I will speak."

"As you say, lord," the monksreplied.

The Blessed One said:

One would notchase after the past,
nor place expectationson the future.
What is past
isleft behind.
The future
isas yet unreached.
Whatever quality is present
one clearly sees right there,
right there.
Unvanquished, unshaken,
that's how one developsthe mind.

Ardently doing one's dutytoday,
for -- who knows? --tomorrow
deathmay come.
There is no bargaining
with Death and his mightyhorde.

Whoever lives thus ardently,
relentlessly
bothday and night,
has truly had an auspiciousday:
So says the PeacefulSage.

"And how, monks, does one chaseafter the past? One gets carried away with the delight of 'In the pastI had such a form (body)'...'In the past I had such a feeling'...'In thepast I had such a perception'...'In the past I had such a thought-fabrication"...'Inthe past I had such a consciousness.' This is called chasing after thepast.

"And how does one not chaseafter the past? One does not get carried away with the delight of 'In thepast I had such a form (body)'...'In the past I had such a feeling'...'Inthe past I had such a perception'...'In the past I had such a thought-fabrication"...'Inthe past I had such a consciousness.' This is called not chasing afterthe past.

"And how does one place expectationson the future? One gets carried away with the delight of 'In the futureI might have such a form (body)'...'In the future I might have such a feeling'...'Inthe future I might have such a perception'...'In the future I might havesuch a thought-fabrication"...'In the future I might have such a consciousness.'This is called placing expectations on the future.

"And how does one not placeexpectations on the future? One does not get carried away with the delightof 'In the future I might have such a form (body)'...'In the future I mighthave such a feeling'...'In the future I might have such a perception'...'Inthe future I might have such a thought-fabrication"...'In the future Imight have such a consciousness.' This is called not placing expectationson the future.

"And how is one vanquishedwith regard to present qualities? There is the case where an uninstructedrun-of-the-mill person who has not seen the noble ones, is not versed inthe teachings of the noble ones, is not trained in the teachings of thenoble ones, sees form as self, or self as possessing form, or form as inself, or self as in form.

"He/she sees feelingas self,or self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling.

"He/she sees perception asself, or self as possessing perception, or perception as in self, or selfas in perception.

"He/she sees thought-fabricationsas self, or self as possessing thought-fabrications, or thought-fabricationsas in self, or self as in thought-fabrications.

"He/she sees consciousnessas self, or self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self,or self as in consciousness. This is called being vanquished with regardto present qualities.

"And how is one not vanquishedwith regard to present qualities? There is the case where a noble disciplewho has seen the noble ones, is versed in the teachings of the noble ones,is well-trained in the teachings of the noble ones, does not see form asself, or self as possessing form, or form as in self, or self as in form.

"He/she does not seefeelingas self, or self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in self, or selfas in feeling.

"He/she does not seeperceptionas self, or self as possessing perception, or perception as in self, orself as in perception.

"He/she does not seethought-fabricationsas self, or self as possessing thought-fabrications, or thought-fabricationsas in self, or self as in thought-fabrications.

"He/she does not seeconsciousnessas self, or self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self,or self as in consciousness. This is called not being vanquished with regardto present qualities.

One would notchase after the past,
nor place expectationson the future.
What is past
isleft behind.
The future
isas yet unreached.
Whatever quality is present
one clearly sees right there,
right there.
Unvanquished, unshaken,
that's how one developsthe mind.

Ardently doing one's dutytoday,
for -- who knows? --tomorrow
deathmay come.
There is no bargaining
with Death and his mightyhorde.

Whoever lives thus ardently,
relentlessly
bothday and night,
has truly had an auspiciousday:
So says the PeacefulSage.

"'Monks, I will teach you thesummary and exposition of one who has had an auspicious day.' Thus it wassaid, and in reference to this was it said."

That is what the BlessedOne said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.


Source: http://world.std.com/~metta/canon/majjhima/mn131.html
(Revised:9 November 1998 )

Bhaddekaratta Sutta:
The Discourse on the Ideal Lover of Solitude translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñanananda© 2005–2010Alternate translation: Thanissaro

Editor's note:An extensive discussion of this sutta may be found in Ideal Solitude: An Exposition on the Bhaddekaratta Suttaby the translator.

Thus have I heard: At one time the Exalted one was living at Saavatthi in the Jeta Grove, Anaathapi.n.dika's monastery. There he addressed the monks thus: "Monks." "Revered one," the monks answered theExalted One in assent. The Exalted one spoke thus "Monks, I shall preach to you the summary and the exposition of the Ideal Lover of Solitude. Listen and give attention. I shall speak." "Even so, revered sir," the monks answered the Exalted One in assent. The Exalted One saidthis:

Let one not trace back the pastOr yearn for the future-yet-to-come.That which is past is left behindUnattained is the "yet-to-come."But that which is present he discerns —With insight as and when it comes.The Immovable — the-non-irritable.In that state should the wise one growToday itself should one bestirTomorrow death may come — who knows?For no bargain can we strikeWith Death who has his mighty hosts.But one who dwells thus ardentlyBy day, by night, untiringlyHim the Tranquil Sage has calledThe Ideal Lover of Solitude.

"And how, monks, does one trace back the past? He thinks: 'I was of such form in the past' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such feeling in the past' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such perception in the past' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such formations in the past' and bringsdelight to bear on them. He thinks: 'I was of such consciousness in thepast' and brings delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one traces back the past.

"And how, monks, does one not trace back the past? He thinks: 'I was of such form in the past' but brings no delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I was of such feeling... of such perception... of such formations...'... He thinks: 'I was of such consciousness in the past' but brings no delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one does not trace back the past.

"And how, monks, does one yearn for the future? He thinks: 'I may have such form in the future' and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I may have such feeling... such perception... such formations...'... He thinks: 'I may have such consciousness in the future' and brings delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one yearnsfor the future.

"And how, monks, does one not yearn for the future? He thinks: 'I mayhave such form in the future' but brings no delight to bear on it. He thinks: 'I may have such feeling... such perception... such formations...'... He thinks: 'I may have such consciousness in the future' but brings no delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one does not yearn for the future.

"And how is one drawn into present things? Herein, monks, an uninstructed ordinary man who takes no account of the Noble Ones, is unskilled in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, untrained in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, taking no account of the good men, unskilled in the Dhamma of the good men, untrained in the Dhamma of the good men, looks upon form as self, or self as possessed of form, or form as in self, or self as in form. He looks upon feeling as self, or self as possessed of feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling. He looks upon perception as self, or self as possessed of perception, or perception asin self, or self as in perception. He looks upon formations as self, orself as possessed of formations, or formations as in self, or self as in formations. He looks upon consciousness as self, or self as possessedof consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That is how, monks, one is drawn into present things.

"And how, monks, is one not drawn into present things? Herein, monks,an instructed Noble disciple who takes into account the Noble Ones, skilled in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, trained in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, taking into account the good men, skilled in the Dhamma of the good men, trained in the Dhamma of the good men, does not look upon form as self, or self as possessed of form, or form as in self, or self as in form. He does not look upon feeling as self... He does not look upon perception as self... He does not look upon formations as self... He does not look upon consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness.That is how, monks, one is not drawn into present things.

Let one not trace back the pastOr yearn for the future-yet-to-come.That which is past is left behindUnattained is the "yet-to-come."But that which is present he discerns —With insight as and when it comes.The Immovable — the-non-irritable.In that state should the wise one growToday itself should one bestirTomorrow death may come — who knows?For no bargain can we strikeWith Death who has his mighty hosts.But one who dwells thus ardentlyBy day, by night, untiringlyHim the Tranquil Sage has calledThe Ideal Lover of Solitude.

So it was with reference to this that it was said: "Monks, I shall preach to you the summary and the exposition of the Ideal Lover of Solitude."

Thus spoke the Exalted One, Delighted, those monks rejoiced in what the Exalted One had said.

(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.131.nana.html)

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