Tu Viện Quảng Đức105 Lynch Rd, Fawkner, Vic 3060. Australia. Tel: 9357 3544. quangduc@quangduc.com* Viện Chủ: TT Tâm Phương, Trụ Trì: TT Nguyên Tạng   

What did the Lord Buddha teach?

29/06/202015:53(Xem: 124)
What did the Lord Buddha teach?




phat thanh dao

WHAT DID THE LORD BUDDHA TEACH?

(A talk given at London Vihara on 26th May 1986)

Ven. Balangoda Ananda Maitreya


The only person who could answer the question “What did the Lord Buddha teach?” was nobody else but the Buddha himself. Let us see what his answer would be.

One day when the Lord Buddha was staying in the Simsapa forest near Madhura, he picked up a few leaves, and holding them up in his hand, he asked his disciples, “What, bretheren, are more numerous, either the leaves in my hand or those in this vast forest?” They said, “Lord, what you hold in your hand are but few leaves. But a the leaves in this vast forest are uncountably more numerous”.

Then the Lord Buddha rejoined, “In exactly the same way, bretheren, what I teach you ever, now as before, are but very few things out of what I know, and what I teach you are the Dukkha and the cessation of Dukkha.

Why did he want to speak only of these two? It is because only the knowledge of these two things deals with the removal and cessation of all suffering or miseries of one’s life. Here Dukkha or suffering and unsatisfactoriness refer to the unhappy side of life and the cause of its arising and continuity. The cessation of dukkha refers to the attainment of real peace and the way thereto. These four facts are called the Four Great Truths, the description of which is called Buddhism in modern terminology.

The whole purpose of the Lord Buddha was to make his hearers realize these four great facts. He explained these truths in various ways suiting different levels of intelligence of his hearers.

The first of the four facts is suffering and the unsatisfactory nature of the existence which we call world. Wherever we look we see change at every moment with its varied aspects such as birth, decay, pain, sorrow, suffering, diseases, union with the disagreeable, disunion from the agreeable, depression, despair and death. Every living being, from the moment of his birth, goes on uninterruptedly towards death. This life in the world implies a journey towards death. His living or life means his continued or incessant journey towards death. Thus life in the world implies a journey to death, the most disagreeable event, and birth implies the start, the setting out of this predestined journey. Thus, birth in any place where there is death or falling away from the present state is unsatisfactory, in its entirety, let alone its other aspects, decay, disease and the like. The increase in the number of rebirths means the increase of the number of deaths and all other unsatisfactory states.

Why and how does this unsatisfactoriness continue? Beings do not see where they are and what they are. Because of this not seeing, because of this spiritual blindness or ignorance, they are attached to, crave for this unsatisfactory existence, mistaking its deceiving guises for happiness. This craving or attachment is the most powerful force that drags back the beings to be reborn over and over again even when their physical frame falls lifeless. This attachment is the real Satan that is busily working in every worldling.

The truth concerning this attachment is the second one of the four great facts.

If there is disease there is its opposite in health. Heat has its opposite in coolness. Darkness has its opposite in light. In the same way if there is unsatisfactoriness in the forms of decay, disease and so on, there must be its direct opposite state in the form of eternal bliss or everlasting peace, which is the cessation of unsatisfactory existence. The truth concerning this fact is the third one among the four great truths.

The attachment to this unsatisfactory existence is due to ignorance, the absence of realization of the exact nature of this existence. If the same ignorance is rooted out, then attachment the upshot of ignorance finds no ground to arise in.

Just as darkness is removed by light, ignorance is removed or destroying by wisdom, insight or the realization of what we really are. For this purpose we have each to make a deep search for ourselves.

Nothing can be successfully done by one who has no self control. One must have control over one’s speech and deed. Then one should control one’s mind by keeping it from straying. Next to this, one must start one’s search of oneself. This process of practice begins at verbal and bodily control which is named as Sila or virtue or right conduct in Buddhist terminology. Depending on Sila (verbal and bodily discipline) one has to develop mind control, which is termed Samadhi or one pointedness of mind. Depending on this, one must start the search of oneself, the self-investigation, which is called the Vipassana in Buddhist terminology.

This is the three-factored discipline, which is otherwise called the eight-factored path in another way of classification.

The factors of the path are: Right understanding, Right thought, Right speech, Right action, Right livelihood, Right endeavour, Right mindfulness, and Right concentration. Out of these eight factors Right speech, Right action and Right livelihood form the factor of Sila or good conduct, in other words, moral discipline. Right effort, Right mindfulness and Right concentration – these three together from the factor Samadhi or Concentration. Right understanding and Right thought – these two together form the factor of Panna or Insight. This three factored discipline or eight-factored path is the way that leads to eternal peace by destroying the cause of the unsatisfactory existence. This is the last one of the four great truths.

Thus the exposition of these four great Truths is what we call Buddhism, the teaching of the Lord Buddha.
One may ask why the Buddha was not interested in dealing with the questions about the origin of the universe and the like.

Suppose there is a doctor or a physician in charge of a sick ward. He has to attend every patient in the sick ward. Some patients are so ignorant that they eat and drink things which make their diseases serious or incurable. So the physician has to make them understand their situation. Accordingly, he explains to them the nature of their diseases. He explains to them the nature of their diseases. He explains to them the cause of the rise and continuity of their diseases. He explains to them that they can be cured and makes them hopeful and encourages them to take his treatment. Then he gives the treatment. Thus, to explain the nature of their diseases, their cause, that they can be cured and the treatment – these four facts are the only things the patients have to deal with. So the physician deals only with these four things and doesn’t listen to their questions about the things astronomical, geographical, geological and the like which have nothing to do with their diseases or their cure.

The Lord Buddha was the physician or healer of our inner disease such as greediness, hatred, jealousy and the like which make us suffer from all sorts of afflictions. The cause of all these mental diseases is our own ignorance as to our present nature. So he, as our healer, regraded it his duty and service to teach us and make us realize only the Four Great Truths, and did not interfere with other problems which have nothing to do with the freedom from our imperfect and unsatisfactory state.

 
Gửi ý kiến của bạn
Tắt
Telex
VNI
Tên của bạn
Email của bạn
08/07/202009:09(Xem: 1118)
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is not over yet. We need to keep looking after ourselves and our community to stop the virus spreading. Due to increased cases in Victoria, some restrictions have changed. From 22 June 2020: · You cannot have more than five visitors in your home · You cannot gather outdoors with more than 10 people · Schools, libraries, places of worship and businesses remain open · Stay close to home and do not travel if possible
12/08/202013:37(Xem: 131)
Hungry Ghosts is a suspenseful, character-driven ghost story with heart, humour and scares. Set in contemporary Melbourne during the month of the Hungry Ghost Festival, when the Vietnamese community venerate their dead, four families find themselves haunted by ghosts from the past. As these hauntings intensify, they threaten to unleash their deepest fears and expose secrets long buried. Through an ensemble of characters, both Vietnamese and Anglo, Hungry Ghosts explores the concept of the inherent trauma we pass down from one generation to the next, and how notions of displacement impact human identity - long after the events themselves. Can you ever really leave behind the trauma of your past? Is it possible to abandon both spiritual and physical culture, or does it form part of your fundamental DNA? To free themselves and those they love, each character in Hungry Ghosts must atone for their sins and confront their deepest fears or risk being swallowed by the shadows of their p
22/06/202013:23(Xem: 573)
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero (Sinhala: අග්ග මහා පණ්ඩිත බලංගොඩ ආනන්ද මෛත්‍රෙය මහා නා හිමි;23 August 1896 – 18 July 1998) was a Sri Lankan scholar Buddhist monk and a personality of Theravada Buddhism in the twentieth century.[3][4] He was highly respected by Sri Lankan Buddhists, who believe that he achieved a higher level of spiritual development through meditation.[2][5] Sri Lankan Buddhists also considered Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero as a Bodhisattva, who will attain Buddhahood in a future life.
23/05/202015:18(Xem: 839)
Dr. Gagan Malik Interview: Mother Nature's Fury with Human Beings | 4 ways to 'overcome' Covid-19, With the rapidly rising number of covid-19 cases in the world's second most populous country, India, and the world's largest lockdown still continuing, I caught up with my friend who is a Bollywood actor, UN Peace Ambassador for South-East Asia and a passionate Buddhist, Dr. Gagan Malik. In this fascinating 47min interview, he shares his various concerns about the covid-19 situation, such as the lack of clear information available on how covid-19 patients are being treated in hospitals, the wastage of time during the lockdown, our mistreatment of Mother Nature/Earth, and also addresses his Buddhists friends on some concerning matters. He also provides some wise suggestions to everyone from a Buddhist point of view on how we can make the most of the lockdown and how collectively as a human race, we can do something about our current dire plight. Thank you so much Dr. Malik for al
21/05/202009:20(Xem: 921)
Victorian United Nations of Vesak 2644 (Saturday, 23 May 2020)
23/04/202020:05(Xem: 1195)
In June of 1957, the senior members of the Youth Circle of the Penang Buddhist Association formed a committee to explore the possibilities of forming a Dharma school to convene each Sunday morning for the systematic instruction of Buddhist children in the truths of our religion. Fifteen members of this committee volunteered to prepare themselves to take over teaching duties. This group of volunteers found no great lack of material suitable for instructing adults in the Dharma, but when they turned their search towards lesson material for children, they found a most startling lack of anything remotely approaching the needs of a modern Sunday school. A certain amount of Buddhist literature for children was found in Chinese and Japanese language presentations, but there are few Chinese in Malaya who are completely at home in written Chinese. Moreover, even the children enrolled in the Dharma classes are well versed only in colloquial Chinese, in Penang usually the Hokkien dialect, and the
22/03/202010:11(Xem: 1244)
Hòa Thương Thích Như Điển đã làm lễ khánh thọ lần thứ 70 trong năm qua. Thầy đã mang truyền thống dòng Thiền Lâm Tế Việt Nam sang nước Đức và là người truyền thừa có ảnh hưởng sâu rộng của Phật Giáo tại đây. Đồng thời, Thầy đã đóng góp triệt để cho sự hội nhập của người Việt trong nước Đức – và do đó cũng là một đoạn đường quan trọng cho tính đa dạng của Phật Giáo trong đất nước này. Trong bài tiểu luận này, ông Olaf Beuchling đã vinh danh cuộc sống và những Phật sự của vị Pháp Sư đồng thời giới thiệu tổng quan dòng Thiền Lâm Tế Việt Nam.] Người ta đứng chen chúc trong khuôn viên an bình của ngôi Chùa Viên Giác tại Hannover: Có hàng ngàn người khách hiện diện trong những ngày hè của tháng sáu năm 2019. Họ đến hỷ chúc 70 năm khánh thọ của Hòa Thượng Phương Trượng Chùa Viên Giác – Thầy Thích Như Điển, vị Tỳ Kheo người Đức gốc Việt.
14/03/202009:22(Xem: 1661)
The Book was first published in 1942. The present edition has been revised and expanded. Though primarily intended for the students and beginners rather than scholars, the reader will find it an extremely valuable handbook, offering a sound foundation to the basic tenets of Buddhism as found in its original Pali tradition.
14/01/202009:00(Xem: 1540)
I consider myself to be one of the extremely lucky ones to study the Dharma at the Phap Bao temple every Sunday with awise, caring and compassionate teacher like Ven. Bhikkuni Giac Anh. The classes are like an endless supply of cool and pure water from a gentle stream that my Dharma friends and I can always drink from to quench our thirst and purify our body and mind.Over the years, I have seen incremental improvements in myselfsuch as being calmer, learning and practicing the Dharma better and applying the practical advice from my Teacher to better deal with everyday challenges.
03/01/202019:51(Xem: 1159)
The Gift of Well Being, Joy, Sorrow and Renunciation on the Buddha’s Way by Ajahn Munindo, Among the many books about Buddhism that have recently been brought to my attention this one is unique. It is not a text; it neither exhorts, compares nor expounds. Quite simply, it opens a way through the landscape of life, ageing and death. Reading, one joins the author of the Way. It is vivid; it is honest; it is profound. All, all flows naturally, revealing a terrain of trust.