Tu Viện Quảng Đức105 Lynch Rd, Fawkner, Vic 3060. Australia. Tel: 9357 3544. quangduc@quangduc.com* Viện Chủ: TT Tâm Phương, Trụ Trì: TT Nguyên Tạng   

Tranquillity–incomparable way

09/08/201906:55(Xem: 2356)
Tranquillity–incomparable way
Phat Thanh Dao
Tranquillity–incomparable way [1]
Thích nữ Tịnh Vân
 (Vietnamese version)


‘Dukkha and The Cessation of Dukkha’ are the heart of the Buddha’s teaching which are expounded in the Dhammacakka-ppavattana-suttaṃ(Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth).[2]


‘Idaṁ dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ’ pariññeyyan-ti

‘this is the noble truth of suffering’ refers (i.e. suffering itself) ought to be fully known.[3]


This statement is known through the simile of the cloth[4] as follow: suppose a cloth were defiled and stained, and a dyer dipped it in some dye or other, it would look poorly dyed and impure in colour. Because of the impurity of the cloth.


So too, when the mind is defiled, an unhappy destination may be expected. There are 16 imperfections of the mind. They are:


1. Covetousness and Unrighteous greed(abhijjhā-visamalobha),

2.Ill  will(vyāpāda),


4.Revenge/hostility (upanāha),


6. a domineering attitude(palāsa),


8.Avarice/ stinginess (macchariya),







15. vanity  (mada),

16. negligence(pamāda).


‘Idaṁ dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ’ sacchikātabban-ti

‘this is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering’ refers (i.e. Nibbāna) ought to be experienced.[5]


The one who has given up, expelled, released, abandoned, and relinquished [the sixteen imperfections of the mind(cittassa upakkilesa)] in part, he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. When he is glad, rapture is born in him; in one who is rapturous, the body becomes tranquil; one whose body is tranquil feels pleasure; in one who feels pleasure, the mind becomes concentrated.[6]Similarly when the mind is undefiled, a happy destination may be expected.


These truths are powers to urge the Buddhain search of the solution such as imperfection, impermanent, emptiness, suffering. It is also the main causeto makeHim enter the world:‘Both formerly and now, monks, I declare only suffering and the cessation of suffering’.[7]


Indeed, lack of reference to involve in the Awakening of the Four Noble Truths, there are people living the household life, enjoying the five pleasures of the senses (i.e. rūpa/ visible , sadda/ audible, gandha/ odour, rasa/ taste, phoṭṭhabba/ tangible), they are referring to and attending to evil, unskillful thoughts which are imbued with desire, aversion and delusion: ‘He is a person, a subject to birth, aging... illness... death... sorrow... defilement, he seeks (happiness in) what is likewise subject to illness... death... sorrow... defilement’.[8] It is ignoble search.


While the second ones are involved in the searching for the unborn, aging-less, illness-less, deathless, sorrow-less, undefiled are called noble search.[9]


The Buddha teaches the Buddhist in the meantime should develop the Four Sublime States (Brahma-vihāra) towards all sentient beings with the realization that, during the immeasurable long passage through the saṃsāra, there is being who has ever been one’s mother, father, sister, brother, son, daughter, relative or friend...


These four attitudes are said to be Brahma (sublime) because they are the right or ideal way of conduct towards living beings (sattesu sammā paṭipatti). They are called vihāra (abodes) because these abidings are the best in being the right attitude towards beings.

Here ‘Mettā (loving-kindness, love, goodwill) is the escape from ill-will, it is also the wish for the welfare and happiness of others.


Karuṇā (compassion) the empathy with them in their suffering, it is the escape from cruelty.

Muditā (sympathetic joy), rejoicing in their virtues and success, it is the escape from aversion (boredom) .

Upekkhā (equanimity/ balance of mind), the attitude of detached impartiality towards beings (not apathy/ indifference), it is the escape from greed.’[10]


Among the Four Sublime States (Brahma-vihāra), equanimity is the crown and culmination, because the thoughts of ‘mine, self, I-making’ are forsaken. Thus, the teaching of anattā (emptiness) will be our guide on the path to deliverance and to perfect equanimity of understanding. The unshakeable nature of anattā is the manifestation of the highest strength.


‘Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu of such virtue, such concentrationand such wisdom uses four kinds of nutriment (āhāra),even that will be no obstacle for him’.[11] Thesefour kinds of nutriment are:


  1. kabaliṅkāhāra / physical food as nutriment, gross or subtle
  2. phassa /contact
  3. mano – sañcetanā / mental volition
  4. viññāṇa / consciousness


Constituted a human being is non-self (anattā), that constitution is always changed (anicca), whatever is anicca is dukkha ‘Yaṃ aniccaṃ taṃ dukkhaṃ’.[12] Again, a being if it has within itself the nature of arising it has also within itself the nature of cessation. This is meant and often found in original texts of Pāli in the well-known formula:


‘Yaṁ kiñci samudayadhammaṁ,

Whatever has the nature of arising,

sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhammaṃ-ti.

all that has the nature of ceasing’[13]


The five aggregates should be known as objects of clinging should be seen as an enemy with drawn sword (S. IV., 174) in the snake simile, as a burden (S. III., 25) according to the Burden sutta, as a devourer (S. III., 87f) according to the To-be-devoured Discourse, and as impermanent, painful, non-self, formed, and murderous, according to the Yamaka Sutta (S. III., 112f). In detail, matter should be regarded as a lump of forth because it will not stand squeezing, feeling as a bubble on water because it can only be enjoyed for an instant, perception as a mirage because it causes illusion, formations as a plantain trunk because it has no core, and consciousness as a conjuring trick because it deceives (S. III., 140-2)


            Knowing and seeing each of them in regard to this body, the attachment to the five aggregates should be abandoned with proper wisdom,


‘This is not mine (n’etaṃ mama),

This I am not (n’eso’haṃ asmi), and

This is not my self (na me so attā)’.[14]


When one knows and sees thus there is no underlying tendency to conceit ‘I-making or mine-making’. Through dispassion, his mind is liberated. When it is liberated there comes to the knowledge ‘It is liberated’. He understands ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being’.[15]


Herein we notice that the Buddha does not say that the five aggregates are unhappy, impermanent, he just simply asks: ‘is it proper to assume that the five aggregates are ‘me, my self, what I am’?[16], if for sure, to put a stop to it. In fact, dukkha or suffering is saṃsāra, the cessation of suffering is tranquillity, Nibbbāna. Both are only aspects of the same reality:


‘When this is, that is. This having arisen, that arises.[17]

(Imasmiṃ sati, idaṃ hoti. Imassuppādā, idaṃ uppajjati).


In the same way, we need to purify bodily acts, verbal acts, and mental acts with repeated reflection to train ourselves. While the observation of the object in terms of its qualities and characteristics brings into being the insight knowledges:


‘When this is not, that is not. This having ceased, that also ceases’ (Imasmiṃ asati, idaṃ na hoti. Imassa nirodhā, idaṃ nirujjhati).[18]

The ariya, a noble one, true man who has been developed aMiddle Way for the abandoning of greed and hate, giving‘vision arose, knowledge arose, wisdom arose, understanding arose, light arose’ in him (cakkhuṁ udapādi, ñāṇaṁ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi).


Therefore, it is easy to recognize that ‘there is no fear, no danger, no disaster for the wise’[19] because the wise are the ones who are in deep belief and freed from birth, aging, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, despair. They are disciples of the Teacher who lives secluded train in seclusion; they abandon what the Teacher tells them to abandon; they are not luxurious and careless, they are keen to avoid backsliding, and are leaders in seclusion.


They know how to cultivate their unmovable faith and transform it into wisdom to destroy all fetters. It is the reason why the Buddha has ever said that ‘the destruction of the taints is for one who knows and sees, not for one who does not know and see’.[20]


There are seven ways[21] of restrain of all the taints are for a well-taught noble disciple, who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, understands what things are fit for attention and what things are unfit for attention, reflecting wisely. These taints should be abandoned as follow:


  1. Taints that should be abandoned by seeing.
  2. Taints that should be abandoned by restraining.
  3. Taints that should be abandoned by using.
  4. Taints that should be abandoned by enduring.
  5. Taints that should be abandoned by avoiding.
  6. Taints that should be abandoned by removing.
  7. Taints that should be abandoned by developing


The Buddha’s attitude towards life is not merely intellectual but practical. It is a realization of what is good and beneficial. It makes an ethical perfection-cum-mental emancipation. This implies a cultivation of good emotions and an abandonment of the bad. Good emotions should always be blended with right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration, right knowledge(sammā-āa) or the knowledge pertaining to the fruit of arahantship and right deliverance (sammā vimutti), the arahant’s liberation from all defilements.

            In the final emancipation, all suffering ceases, and Nibbāna is where lobha, dosa and moha are not. The ideal situation should be realised not after death, but now in this very life. The Nibbāna here and now was stressed. When the knowledge of his emancipation (vimuttasmiṃ vimuttmiti ñāṇaṃ) arises, a monk knows, ‘Rebirth has been destroyed. The higher life has been fulfilled. What had to be done has been accomplished. After this present life there will be no beyond’.[22]


The way of life vibrates with caring and taking care. It guards tradition. Heart, mind and body are given to the creation of happiness for others, here and now. There are five ways of happiness, that is, (i) in confidence based on knowledge and personal experience (saddhā) (ii) in morality (sīla) (iii) in learning (suta) (iv) in the practice of giving up things or generosity (cāga) and (v) in wisdom (paññā).[23] As the Way was taught by Lord Buddha in different ways, according to the capacity of individuals, so the practice should differ according to the abilities and requirements of one’s character. That is all a man needs, for goodness is above all.


In brief, ‘This is the one and only way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for walking on the path of truth, for the attainment of Nibbāna’.[24] (Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya).

Everyone should has to work diligently and constantly to maintain continuous awareness of mind and body.The practice of Vipassana, leading not to the jhānas but to purification of mind, sati/ awareness can only be understood to mean awareness of the present moment rather than a memory of the past (or a dream of the future).



[1]Vesak 2014 tại Bái Đính



[4] M. I, Vatthūpama sutta


[6] M. I, Vatthūpama sutta

[7] M. I, 140

[8] M. I, 26

[9] Ibid

[10] D. III., 248

[11] M. I, Vatthūpama sutta

[12]M. I, No 13


[14]M. III, No 109

[15] Ibid., No 112

[16] M. I, 22

[17]S.II, p.27 - 8

[18] Ibid

[19] A. III, 1

[20] M. I, 2

[21] Ibid

[22]D.I., Samañña-phala sutta

[23] A. III., p. 66

Gửi ý kiến của bạn
Tên của bạn
Email của bạn
08/10/201408:15(Xem: 8841)
Dan Stevenson is neither a Buddhist nor a follower of any organized religion. The 11th Avenue resident in Oakland's Eastlake neighborhood was simply feeling hopeful in 2009 when he went to an Ace hardware store, purchased a 2-foot-high stone Buddha and installed it on a median strip in a residential area at 11th Avenue and 19th Street. He hoped that just maybe his small gesture would bring tranquillity to a neighborhood marred by crime: dumping, graffiti, drug dealing, prostitution, robberies, aggravated assault and burglaries.
19/04/201411:04(Xem: 11339)
Buddhism spans cultural groups such as Chinese, Taiwanese, Malaysian, Indonesian, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Loation, Thai, Mongolian, Tibetan, Burmese, Korean, Japanese, Indian, Sri Lankan, to name but a few. Buddhism has a strong history in Victoria since the goldrush days in 1848 and continues today with unique representation of many cultural groups and traditions and forms practiced in Melbourne and around the state. The 2014 Vesak Observance will be presented with a balance of Commemoration and Celebration. We are honored again to have the support of the City of Melbourne and the Victorian Multicultural Commission, as well as the Victorian Buddhist Community.
16/04/201408:19(Xem: 5514)
The book gives a short account of Buddhism in the last 2500 years. The foreword for the book was written by Dr. Radhakrishnan, world renowned philosopher. The book contains 16 chapters and about one hundred articles written by eminent Buddhist scholars from India, China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Nepal. Buddhism is a way of life of purity in thinking speaking and acting. This book gives an account of Buddhism not only in India but also in other countries of the East. Detailed and insightful glimpse into the different schools and sects of Buddhism find a place in this book. Buddhist ideas on education and the prevailing state of Buddhism as revealed by their Chinese pilgrims who visited India during that times are other components of the book. Chapters on Buddhist art in India and abroad and places of Buddhist interest are also included to give it a holistic perspective. The spirit of Buddha comes alive in the book and enlightens the readers with his teaching so essential now for peac
28/02/201418:26(Xem: 2947)
Every man must have a religion especially one which appeals to the intellectual mind. A man failing to observe religious principles becomes a danger to society. While there is no doubt that scientists and psychologists have widened our intellectual horizon, they have not been able to tell us our purpose in life, something a proper religion can do.
28/02/201418:24(Xem: 2454)
Every student of Buddhism must be interested in a coorect notion of Nirvana,the goal of this religious effort.Naturally this has puzzled many serious minds.Sir Edwin Arnold,in his preface to "The Light of Asia" expresses the "firm conviction that a third of mankind would never have been brought to believe in blank abstractions,or in Nothingness as the issue and the crown of Being." Yet what is it?
28/02/201418:13(Xem: 3696)
Ajahn Brahmavamso (known to all as Ajahn Brahm) was born in London in 1951. He came from a working - class background, but won a scholarship to Cambridge, graduating with a Masters in Theoretical Physics. He became disillusioned because he felt that these great scientists knew everything about the universe out there, but nothing about their own minds Having been interested in Buddhism since age 17...
28/02/201418:11(Xem: 2765)
Chanting is very common to any religion. Buddhism is no exception in this regard. However, the aim and purpose of chanting is different from one religion to another. Buddhism is unique in that it does not consider chanting to be prayer. The Buddha in many ways has shown us to have confidence in our own action and its results, and thereby encouraged us to depend on no one but ourselves.
28/02/201418:09(Xem: 3250)
Books on Buddhism often state that the Buddha's most basic metaphysical tenet is that there is no soul or self. However, a survey of the discourses in the Pali Canon -- the earliest extant record of the Buddha's teachings -- suggests that the Buddha taught the anatta or not-self doctrine, not as a metaphysical assertion, but as a strategy for gaining release from suffering.
28/02/201418:07(Xem: 2816)
The two crucial aspects of the Buddha's Awakening are the what and the how: what he awakened to and how he did it. His awakening is special in that the two aspects come together. He awakened to the fact that there is an undying happiness, and that it can be attained through human effort.
28/02/201418:05(Xem: 2320)
The Buddha was like a doctor, treating the spiritual ills of the human race. The path of practice he taught was like a course of therapy for suffering hearts and minds. This way of understanding the Buddha and his teachings dates back to the earliest texts, and yet is also very current.