Space that contains a thing and the thing that occupies its volume in the space are packed-tight or coinciding with themselves; they are one. When we see an object, our eyes receive light from the surruonding object and translate it into nerve impulses that travel to the brain. Light arriving at the retina must pass through various other cells before striking the rods and cones, which cover it into nervous impulses. The impulses then pass through these other cells to be coded and organized before traveling over the optic nerve to the brain. I see the the object; in the true way, I see its light or image. The image is an emptiness on the retina and the character of the mind is the emptiness; they too are the emptiness, so we can see that object.
Time. When we see the object, after a shortest period of time (ksana) that object becomes immediately inreal or It is not yet Itself; It has a ksana old (Time).
When we see a first point of an object and we perceive it, we have a pure perception because three lifetimes are not capable to be gotten to the time being of the objcect because time always lasts in the infinite line of beginning and exinction and so on without ending. We can get the real (or first) point of the time being with a ksana [a shortest period of time] to the object. When I cognize the pure perception, I have a pure cognition (without space-time). So, the true Mind is no time and the pure cognition is no space-time. That is how to transfer the consciousness or perception to the cognition. The conception about these kinds of cognition and mind are used to distinguish between the Dhyana-Contemplation and Sudden Enlightend Zen.
II Maha Prajna Paramita Hridaya
When Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva (Subject examiner) is practising profoundly Prajna-paramita (Wisdom), He sees and illuminates to the emptiness of the five skandhas (aggregates), and thus attains deliverance from all suffering. (Sarvaloka-dhatu-padravodvega-pratyuttirna) .
The Prajna-paramita-sutra describes "prajna" as supreme, highest, incomparable, unequalled, unsurpassed thought. Prajna is wisdom, knowing or understanding.
When He examines the emptiness of five aggregates, He cognizes that He released and liberated all suffering. The emptiness signifies unreality of the suffering. The five aggregates, in the past, have not still and are passed away; even in the present, the emptiness' s volume of five aggregates becomes unreal, since there is no present suffering.
Sariputra, Matter is not different from Emptiness, and Emptiness is not different from Matter.
Matter is not different from Emptiness because Matter and its Emptiness' s volume are the same. Emptiness' s volume and its Matter are One form. We know that the emptiness' s volume of the matter holds the real matter, or the volume covers its matter or the matter covers its volume, so they become One, or they are packed-tight like One..
Matter is [immediately appears] Emptiness and Emptiness is [immediately appears] Matter. So too are sensation, recognition, volition and consciousness.
Matter immediately appears Emptiness because when "Matter I have just seen" lasts a knasa (a shortest period of time), It becomes ureal. Lasting one ksana, the Matter is not yet Itself (unreal Matter). Of course, The emptiness immediately becomes the matter, because The Emptiness is that unreal Matter. Altghough It is unreal Matter, It is sill the Matter (real) now. For example, Mr. A who is over a ksana has one ksana plus, that is (t2-t1) old (with time, every thing is non-existent). In t1 we see Mr. A is real (like Matter) and at t2, Mr. A is unreal (like Emptiness) toward t1, but in t2, Mr. A is real (Matter). Time makes every thing change. So too are sensation recognition, volition and consciousness.
C. Characteristic of all dhamma (Things)
Sariputra, the emptiness character of all things with neither beginning nor ending, is neither pure nor impure, neither clear nor dirty, and neither increases nor decreases. Therefore, in emptiness: there is no matter, no sensation, recognition, volition or consciusness, no eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, or mind, no sight, sound, scent, taste, tangibles, or dharma, no field of the eye up to no field of mental consciousness no ignorance, no ending of ignorance up to no ageing and death, no ending of ageing and death, no suffering, no cause of suffering, no ending of suffering, and no path, no knowlege and also no attainment.
a) Absolute Entity.
The empty form of all things neither arises nor ends because all things are themselves. The things and their form "Emptiness" are empty. Since their emptiness (Emptiness is nothing) is neither pure nor impure, (Form Emptiness is paked-tight with all things, so It does not change) neither increases nor decreases, and ( Quality Emptiness is naturally neither clear nor dirty) neither good nor bad. The absolute entity called the Ideal Body (Dharmakaya) is pure, independent and unchanged without the space-time.
b) False-building Entity
A false entity is the chracter of their naturally building. When we see a thing through our eyes, we only see its converged image on the retina.The image increases or decreases according to the far or near area..It aways changes. So thing is empty and unreal. The false entity called the Reward Body (Sambhoyakaya) changes, increases and decreases according to the space-time.
c) Factitious Entity
The factitious entity formed by a causes of feeling, cognition, volition and consciousness, since it has the dependent character. The thing's image in the mind is changed according to one's conception and one perceives its form that has colorable, far or near, good or bad, dirty or clear state. This entity called Tranformation body (Nirmanakaya) is unreal and changeable with the space-time.
The emptiness of five aggregates: matter (Rupa), feeling (Vedanta), recognition (Samjna), Volition (Samskara), consciousness (Vijnana) are non-existent with the space-time. Usually, five aggregates are perceived as an ego; really they are an egolessness.
e) Space Character.
The emptiness of eyes,ear,nose, tongue, body and mind is the empty form. Six senses, six roots of sensation that make contact with six objects produce a sensation. The emptiness of six senses (Cause) dependent to the objects can produce a perception; since they are unreal and with space-time.
The emptiness of material shapes,sounds,smells, tastes, tangibles and objects is unreal. The six senses are cooperative with with six objects producing the sensation and perception, or consciousnesses. The objects are non-existent because their factitious entity is only the factors from their combined form.
The emptiness from the sense of vision to the consciousness' sense: Six consciousnesses, conceptional thoughts, are the effects created by the cooperation of the six senses (Cause) and six objects (Object). The six consciousness that are an ephemeral phenomena are misunsdertood as a true mind. According the emptiness character of all things, the usual mind or thing, subject or object are unreal. The mind is impermanent, the thing is egoless.
f. Time Character.
The emptiness of twelve conditions of cause-and- effect (Nidanas or Pratitya-samutpada). When we have ignorance, we also have no ignorance. So we can explain these sentences as follows: no ignorance, no ending of ignorance up to no ageing and death, no ending of ageing and death. Ignorance - no ignorance - no ending ignorance: We see first affirmation, second negation, and third double negation or affirmation. And so too are " ageing and death, no ending of ageing and death". Affirmation, negation, and affirmation always last according to the changeable, illusive, inreal, and continuous time.
g. Interpretation: Emptiness of four Noble Truths
A fundamental doctrine of Buddhism which clarifies the cause of suffering and the way to emancipation. Sakyamuni Buddha is said to have expounded the Four Noble Truths in the Deer Park in Sarnath during his first sermon after attaining Buddhahood. The Buddha organized these ideas into the Fourfold Truth as follows: "Life consists entirely of suffering; suffering has causes; the causes of suffering can be extinguished; and there exists a way to extinguish the cause." (BDVEDP) The emptiness of four noble truths is interpreted by feeling, cognition, volition and consciousness.
"no suffering, no cause of suffering, no ending of suffering, and no path"
The Truth of Suffering (Dhukha-satya) is the effect of the Truth of Accumulation (Samudhaya-satya). The Truth of Right Way (Marga-satya) is the cause of the Extinction of Suffering (Nirodha-satya). The emptiness of four Noble Truths is relative and unreal according to the False-building Entity or the Factitious Entity.The emptiness of feeling, cognition, volition, consciousness is absolute and real with the Absolute Entity.
h) Interpretation: Emptiness of Knowlege and Attainment.
True Knowlege or True Attainment are the reality of Knowing and Executing. Correct Cognition (Absolute Entity) is the Clarity of Awareness or Enlightenment, and the Enlightenment that can be practiced correctly is the Attainment. The True Awareness (Knowlege) and Attainment (Execution) are themserlves enough, real, absolute without imposing on them or using languge, convention. Therefore,"No knowlege and also no attainment" are interpreted by their Emptiness (Absulute). Because they are the false or factitious entity (Because there is nothing obtainable,) the true knowledge of the Enlightenment is to grasp their absolute entity.
D. Attained Effect
(1). Effect: When we practice Pranjna-paramita, we attain two following effects:
Bodhisattvas through the reliance on Prajna-paramita have no attachment and hindrance in their minds. Because there is no more attachment and hindrance, there is no more fear, and Far away from erroneous views and wishful-thinking, Ultimately : The Final Nirvana
a). Releasing all suffering (Time makes all thing illusive). When we examine now the five aggregates, we cognize their emptiness, or their unreality, that is, the suffreing is not still present (here and now). The five aggregates are unreal, so with feeling (Fear), volition (Inversion), cognition (dream and thinking), their obstacles are overcome. Cognizing correctly their false entity is to release all suffering.
b). Attaining Enlightening to Nirvana (Without space-time). When Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva (Subject examiner) is practising profoundly the Prajna-paramita (Wisdom), He looks at the emptiness of the five aggregates (skandhas), and thus gets rid of all suffering. (Sarvaloka-dhatu-padravodvega-pratyuttirna) (skt}. Through the view of absolute entity, five aggregates are not different from emptiness and their emptiness is absolutely nothing, so practicing the profound Prajna-paramita is to cognize the true form of all thing (Absolute Emptiness), also is a road to attain Enlightenment or Nirvana.
Buddhas of the past, present, and future all rely on Prajna-paramitato attain Annutara-samyak-sambodhi. Therefore, realize that Prajna-paramita is the great wondrous mantra, the great radiant mantra, the unsurpassed mantra, and the unequalled mantra. It can eradicate all suffering, and It is genuine and not false. Budha of the past, present, and future practices the Prajna-paramtato and attains Supreme Enlightenment or the supreme right and balanced state of Bodhi (truth) (Anuttara-samyaksambodhi). Buddha of three lifetimes is the emptiness character of the absolute entity.The past is gone, the future has not come, and the present is not grasped because the present is for the time being that is always continuous with the beginning and extinction, and so on. We can not perceive the thing being or time being, because the three lifetimes are incapable to be gotten. So, Buddha of three lifetimes or Buddha' s character executes this Heart Sutra and attains the Buddha' s Enlightenment or Supreme Right and Balanced State of Bodhi (Truth), called Omniscience or Absolute Knowing.
For all that, the Prajna-paramita is the great wondrous mantra,the great radiant mantra, the unsurpassed mantra, and the unequalled mantra. It can eradicate all suffering, and It is genuine and not false.
It is a praise to practicing successfully the Prajna-paramita. Mantra or dharani that is a technique or method (Dharma) going to the reality of all thing. The Great Wondrous Mandra is the Great Magic Spells Dharma that is a great, absolute and infinite action. The Great Radiant Sun mantra annuls the darkness (ignorance) and ends all view-attachment. The Unsurpassed mantra is the Supreme Bodhi Dharma or the Enlightenment of Buddha. The Unequalled mantra, the Supreme Enlightenment is higher than every Mind. Removing all evil mind is called as right or correct mind; cognizing the reality is called as enlightenment;. Buddha' s heart of supreme enlightenment is expected to the Ultimate Truth or Absolute Mind as a Buddha. The mantra or dharani of the Buddha's Enlightenment is learned from three lifetime form of the equality as getting the Supreme Knowledge. Heart of the Supreme Right and Balanced State of Bodhi (The Truth) is higher than all the hearts. Therefore, Maha Prajna Paramita Hridaya is the method or technique (Dharma) to annul all suffering because It is the True Cognition, that is, It is genuine and not false. When we cognize correctly the Maha Prajna-paramita mantra, its True Knowledge is the process of the pure cognition, since that is the meaning to release and liberate every false knowlege or misunderstanding derive from entangled causes to reach to the Nirvana.
Therefore, utter the Prajna-paramita mantra -Chant :
Gate Gate Paragate Parasmagate Bodhisvaha! that immediately stops all false cognition to attain the final end (Nivana). Really, the mantra or dharani, although it is talked about the technique or method (Dharma), is secret words. We do not need to know its meaning. When we recite a phrase of mantra, we ( subject) hear ( know) the mantra (object).We hear is "Subject of hear", and a phrase of mantra is "Object of being heard," since we still have duality, that is, we still have two extremes, or entangled causes, so we still have a creation and destruction. And we cognize correctly that misundertang (Subject: egoless and Object: false) in order to rid of wrong knowledge of the upside-down of the world to achieve the final end. In sum, when we recite or chante a phrase of the mantra, we are aware of reciting its sound in a moment (a shortest period of time). Although the dharani "Gate Gate Paragate Parasmagate Bodhisvaha!" that means as " escape, escape to other border (Bodhi: Enlightenment) quickly," we only cognize the read sound of the dharani because it is a false and factitious language. Immediately we cognize its hearing character. It is to attain the final enlightenment. Keeping in mind: This Enlightenment is the only the Clarity of Awareness of a Direct Mind. Therefore, in the long period of time, we must continue to get Profound Mind until the Bodhi-Mind in order to acheive the Perfect Enlightenment.
BDVEDP. Thien Phuc. Buddhist Dictionary Vietnamese English from the Dieu Phap website: http://www.dieuphap.com The Prajna Paramita Heart Sutra. Buddhist Door at the Lien Hoa website: http://www.lienhoa.net [Heart Sutra:bold phrases]
The two lectures which are here reprinted were delivered by the Hon’ble Justice U Chan Htoon when he was invited to represent Buddhism at two religious Conferences in the United States: The Sixteenth Congress of the International Association for Religious Freedom, held at Chicago, and the Conference on Religion in the Age of Science, held at Star Island, New Hampshire, U.S.A., in August 1958.
This book studies the role of exports in Vietnam’s rapid growth since the country implemented a comprehensive reform (Doimoi) in 1986 to transform itself from a centrally command system to a ‘socialist-oriented market economy’. One central finding is that Vietnam’s growth since Doi-Moi has indeed been export-led as the second-tier NICs of Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, but that many of the characteristics of Vietnam’s exports are different to those of these NICs. Another key finding is that Vietnam’s growth since 2000 has been extensive rather than intensive with high GDP growth driven by rapid growth in factor supplies, especially labour, with low growth in non-agricultural productivity. Such a development path will not support the rate of long-term growth that Vietnam requires to achieve its development objectives, and major policy changes are necessary.
This book provides useful insights in Vietnam’s economy and is a good reference for economic researchers, postgraduate
Science, and in particular physics, has made such great advances that it can almost be said to have reached the limits of its field. At one time it was believed that scientific research would lead to an understanding of the whole universe simply through observation based on the five senses.
In an age of heightened tensions in Australia and around the world, the message of Buddhism has never been more necessary to bring peace to communities and spiritual refuge to individuals. The challenge is how to elucidate that message so that it speaks clearly in diverse voices to different people with disparate needs and to communicate it so that it cuts through an ever-increasing information clutter. As with other organisations, religious bodies are
Karma is one of the fundamental doctrines of Buddhism. Everything that we encounter in this life, good or bad, sweet or bitter, is a result of what we did in the past or from what we have done recently in this life.
It is commonly asserted that religion arose from the fear of danger, particularly natural dangers, such as lightning, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and hurricanes. These dangers have threatened human beings throughout the ages. Ancient man, ignorant of the workings of nature, could not understand the causes of these natural forces. Terrified at the threat they presented, he began to search for answers. This quest precipitated an interest in the nature that surrounded man, and a desire to find some solutions to his problems.
Buddhism goes beyond modern science in its acceptance of a wider field of knowledge than is allowed by the scientific mind. Buddhism admits knowledge arising from the sense organs as well as personal experiences gained though mental culture. By training and developing a highly concentrated mind, religious experience can be understood and verified. Religious experience is not something which can be understood by conducting experiments in a test-tube or examined under a microscope.
The eminent scientist, Bertrand Russell, has summed up the position of present-day philosophical thought follows: '' Assuming physics to he broadly speaking true, can we know it to be true, and if the answer is to be in the affirmative, does this involve knowledge of other truths besides those of physics? We might find that, if the world is such as physics says it is, no organism could know it to be such or that, if an organism can know it to be such, it must know some things other than physics, more particularly certain principles of probable inference".