Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 (300 years after the death of Galileo) in Oxford, England. His parents' house was in north London, but during the second world war, Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St. Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At the age of eleven, Stephen went to St. Albans School and then on to University College, Oxford; his father's old college. Stephen wanted to study Mathematics, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he pursued Physics instead. After three years and not very much work, he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science.
Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973, Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics in 1979, and held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 1979 until 2009. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton. Stephen is still an active part of Cambridge University and retains an office at the Department for Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics. His title is now the Dennis Stanton Avery and Sally Tsui Wong-Avery Director of Research at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.
Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated that it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but rather should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.
His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel. Among the popular books Stephen Hawking has published are his best seller A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, The Universe in a Nutshell, The Grand Design and My Brief History.
Professor Hawking has twelve honorary degrees. He was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honour in 1989. He is the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes, is a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences.
Stephen was diagnosed with ALS, a form of Motor Neurone Disease, shortly after his 21st birthday. In spite of being wheelchair bound and dependent on a computerised voice system for communication Stephen Hawking continues to combine family life (he has three children and three grandchildren), and his research into theoretical physics together with an extensive programme of travel and public lectures. He still hopes to make it into space one day.
Toulouse, France, 14 August 2011 - His Holiness the Dalai Lama said he has been impressed with Kalon Tripa Dr Lobsang Sangay's views on education, praising his policy to generate 10,000 professionally trained Tibetans within the next decade... His Holiness went on to say that he has three fundamental commitments. The first is the promotion of basic human values and the achievement of full human potential.
Washington DC, USA, 16 July 2011 - On his last full day of stay in Washington, D.C. during this visit, His Holiness theDalai Lama first bestowed the longevity of White Tara to the people. Thereafter, a long life prayer was conducted for His Holiness the Dalai Lama by the organizers of the teachings. Kalon Tripa Samdhong Rinpoche recited the attributes of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, his contribution to humanity and the recognition he has been receiving from the international community.
Washington DC, USA, 15 July 2011 – On July 15th His Holiness the Dalai Lama conferred the main series of Kalachakra Initiations. His Holiness the Dalai Lama conferring the Kalachakra Initiation in Washington DC on July 15, 2011.
His Holiness began by talking about it being up to each and every individual to be religious or not, to be Buddhist or not.
Washington DC, USA, 14 July 2011 - On July 14th His Holiness the Dalai Lama began the first stage of the actual Kalachakra empowerment. Early in the morning, His Holiness left his hotel for the Verizon Centerto continue with the preparatory self-generation prayers.
Washington DC, USA, 11 July 2011 - On July 11 His Holiness left early in the morning for the Verizon Center to continue his preparatory rituals. Thereafter, he visited the offices of Radio Free Asia where he was received by its President Libby Liu and other senior officials.
Washington DC, USA, July 8, 2011 - On July 8th, His Holiness the Dalai Lama went to the Verizon Center, the venue of the Kalachakra teachings, to continue with the ritual preparations. Today witnessed the actual beginning of the construction of the Kalachakra Mandala by monks of the Namgyal Monastery. They will now be working in shifts day and night until the Mandala is complete.
Newark, New Jersey, USA, 13 May 2011 - On the morning of May 13th, His Holiness the Dalai Lama left for the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, the venue of The Newark Peace Education Summit, a three-day conference focusing on peacemaking practices from around the world... Emphasizing that peace of mind comes through individual action, His Holiness added, “You cannot buy peace of mind and wisdom in the super market.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama left Minneapolis on May 9, 2011 for his next leg of his program in Dallas, Texas, receiving an honorary degree from the SouthernMethodist University and giving a talk on democracy... His Holiness said that all human beings were the same and that difference in faith, race, language, culture, etc., was secondary.
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 7 May 2011 - On May 7, 2011, His Holiness the Dalai Lama had three main programs. In the morning he met with the press after which he addressed the Tibetan community. In the afternoon, he participated in a panel discussion on the state of Tibetan Buddhism, which was attended by several Chinese students and scholars