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The Buddha's Advice to Meghiya

02/03/201104:32(Xem: 954)
The Buddha's Advice to Meghiya

buddha_hanhtang
The Buddha's Advice to Meghiya 
(Meghiya Sutta)

Sister Ajahn Candasiri 

---o0o---
 

 

 

This sutta [Ud. iv i, AN ix i 3], which appears twice in the Pali canon, tells of a young monk, the Venerable Meghiya, who was the Buddha's attendant. This bhikkhu, returning from alms round one morning, spotted a beautiful and delightful mango grove. He felt this would be the ideal place to practise meditation, so he asked the Buddha if he might go there for the day's meditation. The Buddha responded by asking him to wait until another monk came to carry out his duties as attendant. However, the Venerable Meghiya was eager to go and persisted in his request:

"The Lord has nothing further that should be done, and nothing to add to what has been done, but for me there is something further to be done and something to add to what has been done."

After the third such request, the Buddha agreed: "Do now, Meghiya, as you think fit."

So Meghiya went to the mango grove and finding a suitable shady spot, sat down, his back erect and began his meditation. But for the whole time his mind was filled with unskillful thoughts - of sensuality, malevolence and cruelty. This was a source of surprise and consternation. He had gone forth, full of faith and aspiration; he had found for himself what seemed like the perfect situation for practice, and was making enormous effort - but it was all going wrong, it was not bringing the results he had anticipated or hoped for.

At the end of what must have been a very difficult afternoon, he returned to the Buddha to tell him of his troubles. It seems that the Buddha was not at all surprised when he heard what what had happened. (In fact, the commentary suggests that the Buddha had refused permission for him to go, knowing that he was not yet ready to practise in this way.) He then listed the five conditions that, when the heart's deliverance is not yet ripe, conduce to its ripening:

  1. Good friends,
  2. Virtuous life,
  3. Profitable talk,
  4. Zealous exertion,
  5. Insight into impermanence, which leads to the ending of ill.

Four other things, he said, should also be developed bhavetabba:

1. Meditation on the unlovely (repulsive or loathsome):

For the abandonment of passion (lust or greed);

2. Kindliness

For the abandonment of ill will.

 

3. Mindfulness of in and out breathing anapanasati

For cutting off discursive thinking.

 

4. The contemplation of impermanence aniccasanna

To uproot the pride of egoism:

`For one who thinks on impermanence, the thought of not-self is established; thinking on there being no self, one wins to the state wherein the conceit "I am" has been uprooted, to the cool nibbana even in this life'

We can take a closer took at these.

Firstly, good friends - kalyanamitta hoti kalyanasampavanko: This is usually taken to mean having a wise teacher or wise spiritual companions. This would certainly be appropriate in this context: the Buddha advising the young monk on the importance of being with people who can influence him in a wholesome way. However, the word hoti, means he is, so a more literal translation might be:

He is a friend, an intimate of what is good or wholesome. This points to the need for any type of spiritual endeavour to be motivated by a sense of what is right, a love of the good, and a yearning to manifest that in one's life. Whereas, practice motivated by selfishness - the desire to gain power, prestige, or to take advantage of others - would bring, instead of release, a sense of being increasingly trapped in the world of one's own self seeking - samsara.

The Buddha explains that having a wise advisor, good friends or simply a love of the good, is the natural basis for the arising of the other conditions.

So, secondly: It may be expected of one who has wise companions that he will be virtuous - silava hoti

We learn by example. In Sangha life, although there is the formal training in vinaya, most of our learning and inspiration comes simply through watching how others do things: their manner of behaviour, what they say (or don't say), and when and how they say it. Associating with people following a similar precept form stimulates an interest in this training of body, speech and mind; we are further encouraged by the results it brings. So the full translation for the second condition:

a monk is virtuous, he abides restrained by the restraint of the obligations; he is perfect in the practice of right behaviour, sees danger in trifling faults and trains himself in the ways of training.

Thirdly: Profitable talk. The sutta states that such talk arises easily, and that there is a willingness to share one's understanding with others; it arises naturally, according to the way one is living the life. This talk is described as being that which is 
serious and suitable for opening up the heart, and conduces to a complete turning away from worldly values - nibbidaya; to dispassion, ending, calm, comprehension, to perfect insight, to Nibbana. That is to say, talk about wanting little; contentment; solitude; avoiding society; putting forth effort; virtue, concentration and wisdom; about release and the knowledge and insight of release.

The company of wise friends who are at ease in themselves dispels any sense of having to repress or deny inclinations that do not accord with these guidelines; to see that it is not a matter of forcing oneself into a puritanical kind of `holiness', but that these qualities arise naturally as the practice matures.

The fourth condition is zealous exertion: [One abides] resolute in energy for the abandoning of unprofitable things and for taking up what is profitable - stout and strong in effort, not giving up on what one has undertaken (not relinquishing the burden of righteousness.

Again, a wise teacher or good friend, can encourage us and guide our efforts towards what is wholesome. Inevitably, on a religious path there are times when the practice seems dull, lifeless, or totally unproductive. There may be an inclination to abandon the whole thing and to return to look for refuge in the world, in what is familiar and seems comfortable. A wise teacher and good friends remind us of our deeper aspiration and potential, and of the inherent danger or unsatisfactoriness of the world of the senses. This enables us to continue on towards our goal. Practising together we, in a sense, carry one another when there is faltering - just through doing the practice to the best of our ability.

Fifthly: a monk is possessed of insight, and understands the way of growth and decay, having Ariyan penetration concerning the way to the utter destruction of Ill.

We need to be reminded of where to look to find our freedom. It is not in the attainment of some special state in the future, although such states can be the basis for insight, but right in this moment itself. The late Ajahn Buddhadasa used to say: "Nothing whatsoever is to be clung to!" It's an insight that's so subtle that we can easily miss it. Our longing for security and the power of our conditioning are so strong that we can dismiss this key to the door of the Deathless; we are bound by ignorance, nescience - not seeing, not wanting to look, until it is too late. So we need every encouragement to keep looking, to keep remembering, in order to find that point of non-attachment - which is not a rejection of anything at all but, rather, a proper appreciation of our human predicament. Some pick it up quickly (according to the commentary, the Venerable Meghiya attained to stream entry just on hearing this teaching) for others, the lessons need much repetition. We are caught by some desire - a plan, an idea, a regret or a grudge - it hurts, and eventually we let go. This happens over and over again, until finally we learn not to pick things up, not to attach to anything at all. The beauty of Nature is in its transitoriness - not in anything lasting that one can claim as one's own. The Buddha, through his own efforts, awakened to this reality, which freed him from having to trudge and travel through this long round - samsara. This is the insight, as he explained to the Venerable Meghiya, that can free us all from the pain of attachment.

The Buddha concludes by outlining techniques of meditation which should be cultivated in response to specific conditions that may arise in the mind. This responsiveness itself is important to consider. We are not asked to simply work away at developing one particular type of meditation practice. The encouragement is to be aware of what is happening in the mind at any time, and to exercise intelligence in choosing the technique suitable to bring about and support a state of calm, in order that wisdom may arise.

So we have:

  1. Meditation on the unlovely asubha for overcoming states of passion, lust or greed. 
    Sometimes this is translated as meditation on loathsomeness or repulsiveness - which can indeed be the case with certain aspects of physicality. However, sometimes a more analytical approach can be effective in inducing a sense of disinterest, or neutrality, as opposed to actual aversion - which is actually just another form of desire. For example, there is the contemplation that monks and nuns are given at the time of Going Forth - hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth and skin - which is a way of dismantling the illusion of physical beauty or attractiveness of another person. Contemplating objects in terms of the elements that comprise them: earth, water, fire and air can be helpful in cooling the passion or interest with things like food; looking at the form, colour or texture, rather than automatically absorbing into the anticipation of something to be consumed, or delighting in the smell or taste of it.
  2. For dealing with ill will or malevolence, the practice of kindliness or well wishing metta is recommended.
    This does not mean that we have to like everybody, but at least to avoid allowing the mind to linger in states of negativity or aversion towards them.
  3. The third meditation is mindfulness of in and out breathing anapanasati
    The Buddha recommended this universally as a way of focussing the mind in the present; gathering attention onto the breath, rather than being whirled around, pulled to and fro by distracting thoughts.
  4. The fourth contemplation is of impermanence. 
    One way to approach this is by careful attention to how we experience `ourselves' and others in each moment. This pierces the illusion of a fixed and enduring personality that is in any way related to body or mind; there is simply awareness.

These four meditation exercises need to be developed continually in order for the deeply rooted habits, which have arisen because of our ignorance, to be transformed. But, as the Buddha pointed out to the Venerable Meghiya, the ripening of the heart's emancipation will arise quite naturally when the five conditions are there as a basis for our practice.

Sister Ajahn Candasiri

-ooOoo-

 

Udana IV.1

Meghiya Sutta - About Meghiya

Translated by Bhikkhu Thanissaro


I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying among the Calikans, at Calika Mountain. At that time Ven. Meghiya was his attendant. Then Ven. Meghiya went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, stood to one side. As he was standing there he said to the Blessed One, "I would like to go into Jantu Village for alms."

"Then do, Meghiya, what you think it is now time to do."

Then in the early morning, Ven. Meghiya, having put on his robes and carrying his bowl and outer robe, went into Jantu Village for alms. Having gone for alms in Jantu Village, after the meal, returning from his alms round, he went to the banks of the Kimikala River. As he was walking along the banks of the river to exercise his legs, he saw a pleasing, charming mango grove. Seeing it, the thought occurred to him: "How pleasing and charming is this mango grove! It's an ideal place for a young man of good family intent on exertion to exert himself in meditation. If the Blessed One gives me permission, I would like to exert myself in meditation in this mango grove."

So Ven. Meghiya went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "Just now, in the early morning, having put on my robes and carrying my bowl and outer robe, I went into Jantu Village for alms. Having gone for alms in Jantu Village, after the meal, returning from my alms round, I went to the banks of the Kimikala River. As I was walking along the banks of the river to exercise my legs, I saw a pleasing, charming mango grove. Seeing it, the thought occurred to me: 'How pleasing and charming is this mango grove! It's an ideal place for a young man of good family intent on exertion to exert himself in meditation. If the Blessed One gives me permission, I would like to exert myself in meditation in this mango grove.' If the Blessed One gives me permission, I would like to go to the mango grove to exert myself in meditation."

When this was said, the Blessed One responded to Ven. Meghiya, "As long as I am still alone, stay here until another monk comes."

A second time, Ven. Meghiya said to the Blessed One, "Lord, the Blessed One has nothing further to do, and nothing further to add to what he has done. I, however, have something further to do, and something further to add to what I have done. If the Blessed One gives me permission, I would like to go to the mango grove to exert myself in meditation."

A second time, the Blessed One responded to Ven. Meghiya, "As long as I am still alone, stay here until another monk comes."

A third time, Ven. Meghiya said to the Blessed One, "Lord, the Blessed One has nothing further to do, and nothing further to add to what he has done. I, however, have something further to do, and something further to add to what I have done. If the Blessed One gives me permission, I would like to go to the mango grove to exert myself in meditation."

"As you are talking about exertion, Meghiya, what can I say? Do what you think it is now time to do."

Then Ven. Meghiya, rising from his seat, bowing down to the Blessed One and circling him to the right, went to the mango grove. On arrival, having gone deep into the grove, he sat down at the foot of a certain tree for the day's abiding.

Now while Ven. Meghiya was staying in the mango grove, he was for the most part assailed by three kinds of unskillful thoughts: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of doing harm. The thought occurred to him: "How amazing! How awesome! Even though it was through faith that I went forth from home to the homeless life, still I am overpowered by these three kinds of unskillful thoughts: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of doing harm." Emerging from his seclusion in the late afternoon, he went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, "Just now, while I was staying in the mango grove, I was for the most part assailed by three kinds of unskillful thoughts: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of doing harm. The thought occurred to me: 'How amazing! How awesome! Even though it was through faith that I went forth from home to the homeless life, still I am overpowered by these three kinds of unskillful thoughts: sensual thoughts, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of doing harm.'"

"Meghiya, in one whose release of awareness is still immature, five qualities bring it to maturity. Which five?

"There is the case where a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, and colleagues. In one whose release of awareness is still immature, this is the first quality that brings it to maturity.

"Furthermore, the monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior and sphere of activity. He trains himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. In one whose release of awareness is still immature, this is the second quality that brings it to maturity.

"Furthermore, he gets to hear at will, easily and without difficulty, talk that is truly sobering and conducive to the opening of awareness, i.e., talk on having few wants, on contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue, on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge and vision of release. In one whose release of awareness is still immature, this is the third quality that brings it to maturity.

"Furthermore, he keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful [mental] qualities and for taking on skillful qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful qualities. In one whose release of awareness is still immature, this is the fourth quality that brings it to maturity.

"Furthermore, he is discerning, endowed with the discernment of arising and passing away -- noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. In one whose release of awareness is still immature, this is the fifth quality that brings it to maturity.

"Meghiya, when a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, and colleagues, it is to be expected that he will be virtuous, will dwell restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his behavior and sphere of activity, and will train himself, having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults.

"When a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, and colleagues, it is to be expected that he will get to hear at will, easily and without difficulty, talk that is truly sobering and conducive to the opening of awareness, i.e., talk on having few wants, on contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue, on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge and vision of release.

"When a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, and colleagues, it is to be expected that he will keep his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful qualities, and for taking on skillful qualities -- steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful qualities.

"When a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, and colleagues, it is to be expected that he will be discerning, endowed with discernment of arising and passing away -- noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress.

"And furthermore, when the monk is established in these five qualities, there are four additional qualities he should develop: He should develop [contemplation of] the unattractive so as to abandon lust. He should develop good will so as to abandon ill will. He should develop mindfulness of in-and-out breathing so as to cut off distractive thinking. He should develop the perception of inconstancy so as to uproot the conceit, 'I am.' For a monk perceiving inconstancy, the perception of not-self is made firm. One perceiving not-self attains the uprooting of the conceit, 'I am' -- Unbinding in the here and now."

Then, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed:

Little thoughts, subtle thoughts,
    when followed, stir up the heart.
Not comprehending the thoughts of the heart,
    one runs here & there,
    the mind out of control.
But comprehending the thoughts of the heart,
    one who is ardent, mindful,
    restrains them.
When, followed, they stir up the heart,
    one who is awakened
    lets them go without trace.

 

---o0o--- 
Source: Forest sangha Newsletter, UK, http://www.abm.ndirect.co.uk/fsn/

Update : 01-05-2002

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