Tu Viện Quảng Đức105 Lynch Rd, Fawkner, Vic 3060. Australia. Tel: 9357 3544. quangduc@quangduc.com* Viện Chủ: TT Tâm Phương, Trụ Trì: TT Nguyên Tạng   

Buddhist Meditation: A Peaceful life

07/07/201917:16(Xem: 1295)
Buddhist Meditation: A Peaceful life



phat thien dinh 2

BUDDHIST MEDITATION: A PEACE LIFE
[1]

 

                                                                            Thich nu Tinh Van

 

The Buddha’s ethical teachings, these essential points of the eightfold path aim at promoting as well as perfecting the three heads of Buddhist training and discipline, namely (a) Ethical Conduct (b) Mental Discipline and (c) Wisdom. According to the capacity of each individual harmoniously cultivated, these points are all linked together and each helps the cultivation of the others.

From the Noble Eightfold Path one can turn briefly to see how does samādhi fit in with their constituents, that is, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati and sammāsamādhi. One detached from sense-desires, unwholesome mental states, enters and remains in the paṭhama  jhāna, which is with vitakka and vicāra, born of detachment, filled with pīti and sukha.

           With the subsiding of vitakka and vicāra, by gaining upekkhā and Ekaggatā, he enters and remains in the dutiya jhāna which is without vitakka and vicāra, born of concentration, filled with pīti and sukha.

          With the fading away of pīti, remaining upekkhā, mindful and clearly aware, he experiences in himself the joy of which the Noble Ones say, ‘Happy is he who dwells with upekkhā and sammāsati’, he enters the tatiya jhāna.

           Having given up pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters and remains in the catuttha jhāna, which is beyond pleasure and pain, purified by upekkhā and sammāsati.

          In the suttas, samādhi is defined as mental one-pointedness           (cittass’ ekaggatā).[2] The essence of concentration is non-distractedness. In samādhi, the mind is not only directed towards the subject, but also penetrates it, is absorbed in it and becomes one with it. Anything is the object of attention can be the subject for concentrative meditation. Concerning the activities of mind, one should be aware of all movements of mind such as whether one’s mind is lustful, given to hatred and deluded or not. Regarding to the ideas one should know their nature and know how do they appear and disappear, how are they developed, suppressed, destroyed and so on.[3]

          The Buddha knew the diversity of character and mental make-up of each individual and the different temperaments as well as inclinations of those who approached him for guidance. Depending on the need of each individual, the Buddha recommended different methods to different persons to suit the special character. The Visuddhimagga enumerates forty meditation subjects (kammaṭṭhāna)[4] for the diversity of them. They are known as :

          - Ten kasinas, contemplation devices, are external devices used to compose the mind or focus concentration, namely., paṭhavī (earth), āpo (water), tejo (fire), vāyo (air), nīla (blue), pīta (yellow), lohita (red), odāta (white), āloka (light), ākāsa (bounded space).

          - Ten asubhas, corpses at different stages of decay.

          - Ten anussati (reflections) or bases of mindfulness on the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Saṅgha and so on.

          - Four Brahmavihāra (boundless states of mind/ Excellent Qualities): loving kindness (mettā), compassion (karuṇā), sympathetic joy or joy in the success of others (muditā) and equanimity (upekkhā).

          - Four arūpa-jhāna (formless jhāna): 1. the sphere of Infinite Space (ākāsānañcāyatana) 2. the sphere of Infinite Consciousness (viññāṇañcāyatana) 3. the sphere of Nothingness (ākiñcaññāyatana) 4. the sphere of Neither - Perception nor Non - Perception (nevasaññānāsaññāyatana).

          - One Āhāre Patikkulasañña (loathsomeness of food).

- One catu-dhātu-vavaṭṭhāna (meditation on the four physical elements/ paṭhavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo ) with no thought of personal distinction. The body is merely a synthesis of physical elements, without entity.

          Each of these subjects will reap different results, and can serve as the base for developing concentration to the depth necessary for attaining the nibbānic state.

          There are two types of samādhi: Rūpasamādhi and Arūpasamādhi. In Rūpasamādhi it is seen that there are five jhāna-factors namely; Vitakka, Vicāra, Pīti, Sukha and Ekaggatā. When there is the presence of the five jhāna-factors, the paṭhama-jhāna is maintained. When there is the presence of Pīti, Sukha and Ekaggatā, the dutiya-jhāna is maintained. When there is the presence of Sukha and Ekaggatā, the tatiya-jhāna is maintained. When there is the presence of Upekkhā and Ekaggatā, the catuttha-jhāna is maintained.[5] This is according to the fourfold reckoning of jhāna; however he is developing fivefold jhāna by this way: the second in the fourfold reckoning becomes the second and third in the fivefold reckoning by being divided into two. And those which are the third and fourth in the former reckoning become the fourth and fifth in this reckoning. The first remains the first in each case.[6]





                     Fourfold jhāna                                      Fivefold jhāna

 


  1.       Vitakka, Vicāra,  Pīti,                            Vitakka, Vicāra,  Pīti, 

                Sukha, Ekaggatā                                    Sukha, Ekaggatā

 

  2.       Pīti, Sukha, Ekaggatā                    Vicāra,  Pīti, Sukha, Ekaggatā

 

  3.       Sukha  and  Ekaggatā                            Pīti, Sukha, Ekaggatā

 

  4.      Upekkhā and Ekaggatā                           Sukha  and  Ekaggatā

 

  5.                                                                   Upekkhā and Ekaggatā

                                                                                            

Upekkhā and Ekaggatā in Rūpa-jhāna are also available in Arūpa-jhāna.[7]

          One realizes and then removes the five nīvaraṇa (hindrances), namely., (i) kāmachanda (lustful desires) (ii) vyāpāda (ill-will) (iii) thīna-middha (torpor) (iv) uddhacca-kukkucca (restlessness and worry) (v) vicikicchā (sceptical doubts) by the five jhāna factors, it is the beginning of samādhi, which will further develop till it attains one-pointedness of mind.

          Each jhāna-factor will remove each hindrance by this way:

 


    Five jhāna-    Vitakka     Vicāra            Pīti               Sukha     Ekaggatā

 

        factors

 

          Five         thīna-        

    hindrances   middha                        vyāpāda       uddhacca-     kāmachanda

 

                                         vicikicchā                          kukkucca        

 


          The results ultimately in Ekaggatā when practice the mental cultivation are known as samādhi-bhāvanā (concentrative meditations). This meditation, when developed and expanded, leads to: (a) Happiness here and now (diṭṭhadhamma-sukha), (b) Gaining knowledge and vision (ñāṇa-dassana-paṭilābha), (c) Mindfulness and clear awareness (sati-sampajañña) and (d) The destruction of the corruptions (āsavānaṃ khaya).[8]

           The teachings of Lord Buddha, which have been preached for training in higher mentality, are called Adhicittasikkhā. The Buddha indeed teaches how to develop concentration for one who understands things as they really are. From that point of view, concentration provides the foundation for wisdom (paññā).

          * To opine the benefits of developing concentration, the Blessed One has described the five kinds of mundane direct-knowledge (abhiññā).[9] They are named (i) the kinds of Supernormal Powers (Iddhi-vidhā) (ii) the knowledge of the Divine Ear Element (Dibba-sota) (iii) the knowledge of Penetration of the Minds of others (Ceto-pariya-ñāṇa) (iv) the knowledge of Recollection of Past Life (Pubbe-nivāsānussati-ñaṇa) (v) the knowledge of the Passing away and Reappearance of Beings (Cutūpapāta- ñaṇa). And one supermundane power is attainable through penetrating insight, i.e., (vi) the knowledge of the Destruction of defiling fetters (Āsavakkhaya-ñaṇa).

In brief, purification from the defilement of misconduct is shown by       sīla; purification from the defilement of craving, by samādhi; and purification from the defilement of false views, by paññā.[10]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preliminary jhānas

 


Paṭhama jhāna (first jhāna)

 Dutiya jhāna (second jhāna)

                  Tatiya jhāna (third jhāna)

  Catuttha jhāna (fourth jhāna)

 

 

 

 

 


          Higher jhāna                                                  Higher paññā

 


      Ākāsānañcāyatana               Cintāmaya paññā                    Iddhi-vidha

(sphere of Infinite space)          (knowledge based         (supernormal power)

                                                      on thought)                      

                                                                                                   Dibba-sota

                                                Sutamaya paññā                         (divine ear

                                                (knowledge based                        element)

        Viññāṇañcāyatana                 on learning                   

       (sphere of Infinite                  and hearing)                 Ceto-pariya ñāṇa

          consciousness)                                                            (penetration

                                              Bhāvanāmaya paññā                    of minds)

                                             (knowledge based on                       

                                               mental development        Pubbe-nivāsānussati                                                          meditation)                                   ñāṇa                                                                                                            (recollection

        Ākiñcaññāyatana                                                             of past life)

 (sphere of Nothingness)                                                   

                                                                                 

                                                                                         Cutūpapāta ñāṇa

                                                                                           (passing-away

                                                                                        and reappearance)

Nevasaññānāsaññāyatana                                                             

     sphere of Neither 

Perception nor Non Perception)                                                   

 

 

 

 


   Saññāvedayitanirodha                                    Āsavakkhaya ñāṇa

 (cessation of perception                          (knowledge of the destruction

            and feeling)                                            of defiling fetters)

 

 

 


      Cetovimutti                                                               Paññāvimutti,

 (freedom of thought)                                                   Paññāya vimutti

                                                                             (freedom through insight)

 

 

                                          A Peace Life/ Nibbāna



     [1] (Somaiya center in Mumbai, India , 3-5 Sep, 2010)

     [2] Vism. III ., 2

     [3] M. I., No 10

     [4] Vism. III., 60

     [5] Ibid., 21

     [6] Ibid., 202

     [7] M. I ., No 19

     [8] D. Sangiti sutta., p. 215

     [9] D. I., 77

     [10] Vism. I ., 13

Gửi ý kiến của bạn
Tắt
Telex
VNI
Tên của bạn
Email của bạn
13/07/201822:52(Xem: 2622)
Smartphone Overuse, Youth Suicide and Buddhism as a Healing Source, Youth suicide is disturbingly rising. Ashley Welch, in her article “What’s behind the rise in youth suicides?” (2017), gave some insights into the trend. The author mentioned potential causes for this trauma and notably pointed to “the correlation between the rising popularity of smartphones and increased rates of suicide and depression among young people” (para. 17). Although Welch did not offer a clear reason for the correlation, this point raises an awareness of an irony. We, as readers, may wonder, “How can such a wonderful entertaining device cause that terrible thing?” In this paper, I will discuss the roots of this pain, and then suggest Buddhism as a healing source.
27/06/201809:22(Xem: 2893)
Why Aren't We Teaching You Mindfulness? AnneMarie Rossi, Founder and CEO of BeMindful Harvard conducted a research study and they tracked more than 1,000 people from birth until age 32 looking for what made someone successful. What common characteristic or trait was seen in a successful individual? It wasn't their race, what language they spoke, what neighborhood they grow up in, or how much money their parents had. It wasn't how well they did on standardized tests or even their IQ. It was self-control; those who were successful, who had good careers, financial stability, loving relationships, and physical health. Those who were successful, were the ones who could focus, pay attention, and regulate their emotions.
22/05/201818:16(Xem: 8896)
The Buddhist community is extremely upset by the inappropriate and disrespectful use of the image of Buddha, The Buddhist community is extremely upset by the inappropriate and disrespectful use of the image of Buddha, in a display at the National Gallery of Victoria (NGV) entitled the 'Eternity-Buddha in Nirvana, the Dying Gaul, Farnese Hercules, Night, Day, Sartyr and Bacchante, Funerary Genius, Achilles, Persian Soldier Fighting, Dancing Faun, Crouching Aphrodite, Narcisse Couché, Othryades the Spartan Dying, the Fall of Icarus, A River, Milo of Croton'. It can also be seen at: https://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/explore/collection/work/131149/ Although this display has been in place for some months, we have only just been made aware of its' existence. We are not usually outspoken, but this display desecrates the image of Buddha by placing images of these mythical images on him and in doing so, showing no apparent regard or respect for Him.
25/04/201816:25(Xem: 2124)
Prior to sharing some thoughts on the question, 'According to 2010 statistics, the number of Buddhists around the world is consistently increasing by approximately 5% to 10% per annum. What do you think are the main causes for this increase?', I should mention that I'm often 'open-mindedly skeptical' about such surveys, and the statistics gathered during such surveys. For where does the information come from and how is the information gathered, and for what purpose, and so on and so forth.
24/04/201807:16(Xem: 1579)
When The Birds Stop Singing By Dao Van Binh (Translated by Nguyên Giác)
10/03/201807:13(Xem: 2351)
To give the briefest conclusion that I can think of to the question- 'Do you think that sectarian diversity affects the stability of Buddhism as a whole?', I would have to say, 'Yes' and 'No'. My intention here is not to give a definitive answer, but to give readers 'food for thought', to enable each of us to be responsible and maintain pure intentions, to think for ourselves and develop genuine wisdom and compassion. In the spirit of the Dharma, rather than dwelling on any possible problems, we should mainly focus on solutions to any such problems. With the hope of maintaining the integrity and purity of Buddhism in this world.
28/02/201807:29(Xem: 2519)
Why is Buddhism so diverse ? Andrew Williams, I think we can all agree that the reason for the many diverse traditions and paths within Buddhism is that all sentient beings, in one way or another, are different, both mentally and physically, and therefore each individuals needs are also different. The Buddha explained that we sentient beings all have different and limited levels of understanding of this or that, and even if we focus on the very same thing, we will perceive it according to our own perspective. From our own limited viewpoint. We tend to perceive things and others based on our own preconceived ideas and past experiences. It's as if we judge the whole ocean based on the small part of the ocean that we may think we know. The whole sky based on a few clouds.
03/11/201721:39(Xem: 3510)
As this Thursday 9 and Friday 10 November, Ven Chi Kwang Sunim will talk on "Women in Leadership" as part of the Prevention of Violence Against Women Leadership Program, BCV would like to invite you and members of your organisation to attend this important program which runs at two places. Thursday 9 November 2017@ Hoa Nghiem Temple, 442-448 Springvale Road, Springvale South, VIC 3172 Friday 10 November 2017 @ Coburg Library Meeting Room, Coburg, VIC 3058 Time: 12.30-2.30 pm.
10/05/201701:00(Xem: 5385)
A celebration of Buddha’s 2,641st birthday was held on Sunday, May 7, 2017 at the Quang Duc Buddhist Monastery in Melbourne's northern suburb of Fawkner.
08/04/201711:47(Xem: 3040)
Buddhist Wedding of Trương Bích Thúy Vy Violet, pd: Như Thiện , và Mitchell James Partoglou, Saturday 8-4-2017