Tu Viện Quảng Đức105 Lynch Rd, Fawkner, Vic 3060. Australia. Tel: 9357 3544. quangduc@quangduc.com* Viện Chủ: TT Tâm Phương, Trụ Trì: TT Nguyên Tạng   

Buddhism - An Introduction

11/01/201106:05(Xem: 2762)
Buddhism - An Introduction


Buddha_4
Buddhism - An Introduction

Graeme Lyall


WHAT IS BUDDHISM?

In the year 563B.C. on the border of modern day Nepal and India, a son was born to a chieftain of the Sakya clan. His name was Siddhartha Gotama and at the age of thirty-five, he attained, after six years of struggle and through his own insight, full enlightenment or Buddhahood. The term 'Buddha' is not a name of a god or an incarnation of a god, despite later Hindu claims to the contrary, but is a title for one who has realised through good conduct, mental cultivation, and wisdom the cause of life's vicissitudes and the way to overcome them. Buddhism is perhaps. unique amongst the world's religions in that it does not place reliance for salvation on some external power, such as a god or even a Buddha, but places the responsibility for life's frustrations squarely on the individual. The Buddha said:

By oneself, indeed, is evil done; By oneself is one defiled. 

By oneself is evil left undone; By oneself indeed is one purified. 
Purity and impurity depend on oneself. No one purifies another.

His teaching can be summarised as:

Not to do any evil, 

To cultivate good, 
To purify one's mind,
This is the Teaching of the Buddhas.

To many people of other faiths the term 'Buddha' conjures up ideas of idol worship and concepts, such as, that Buddhists are atheists, such concepts being an anathema to the followers 'of the, so called 'religions of the book’. Buddhism, certainly, is very different from the Semitic religions, but it may surprise many of its critics to know that the Buddha condemned idolatry. When, just prior to his passing away, he was asked how he could be remembered he replied that those who practised his teachings would remember him best. Prior to the arrival on the Indian sub-continent of the Bactrian-Greeks, Buddha images were unknown. The Buddha foresaw that worship of him in any form would result in his deification with its consequent emphasis on seeking salvation from an external power rather than identifying Nirvana, the eradication of greed anger and delusion, as being solely within one's own power. Indeed, he was right. For many ethnic Buddhists, he is a God from whom they ask favours. We must recognise that the world’s major religions are different and we should accept those differences with respect and appreciation. For example, Buddhists feel uncomfortable in acknowledging a Creator of the world, however Buddhists do accept that there is a transcendental state possible of realisation by each and every one of us. We certainly do not accept the concept of an anthropomorphic god but many Christians, Jews and Muslims would join us in such a rejection. Buddhists, generally, are uncomfortable in using the term "God", because there is no clear definition of to what such a term refers. In the case of the Buddhists, too, before they criticise other faiths for their belief in "God", they should ascertain what the person from the other faith means by "God". Too often, arguments are purely semantic. What one calls "God" may be covered by another term by your opposite number. A fundamentalist Christian, for example, would view God in an anthropomorphic way which is totally different to that of a mainstream Christian. A Jew or a Muslim would view God in a totally different sense to the average Christian. Indeed, an anthropomorphic view of God would be considered by Jews and Muslims to be idolatrous. If, as is the case with many modern theologians, one holds the Tillichian view that God is the "Ground of Being" - the very fact of existence - then no Buddhist could argue with this. However, a Buddhist would be hesitant in using the term ‘God’. The Buddhist concept of Nirvana, the highest state attainable is described in the Itivuttaka, one of the books of the Buddhist canon thus:

‘Monks, there is an unborn, a not-become, a not-made, a not-compounded. Monks, if that unborn, not-become, not-made, not-compounded were not, there would be apparent no escape from this that here is born, become, made, compounded. But, monks, since there is an unborn, not-become, not-made, not-compounded, therefore the escape from this that here is born, become, made and compounded is apparent.’

In Indonesia, for example, where five religions are officially recognised on condition that they express a belief in God, the above definition from the Itivuttaka is accepted as the Buddhist definition of God. This to a Buddhist is the ultimate reality - and is not the ultimate reality to most religious people an unborn, uncreated, not-made and not compounded, which is beyond description. To a Christian, a Jew and a Muslim, this may be termed ‘God’, whereas a Buddhist would use the term ‘Nirvana’. I feel that we are talking about a similar concept.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE MAJOR SCHOOLS

The essential teachings of the Buddha are accepted as pivotal to all schools of Buddhism, however, they differ mainly on the emphasis that they place on certain aspects of the teaching and in their interpretation of the rules (Vinaya) governing the conduct of the clergy (Sangha). The Theravada school claims to adhere strictly to the original teachings of the Buddha as contained in the Pali cannon (scriptures) and it emphasises the goal of personal salvation (Arahant ideal) for the individual follower. The Sangha of the Theravada is expected to observe to the letter the 227 rules laid down in a collection of books called the Vinaya, which includes such rules as eating only prior to midday and refraining from handling money. Four of these 227 rules, if broken, entail expulsion of the transgressor from the monastic order. They are: killing a human being, sexual intercourse, stealing and falsely claiming supernormal powers.

The Mahayana school is less rigid in its interpretation of the Teachings and emphasises the importance of the follower's becoming a Buddha for the salvation of all living beings (Bodhisattva ideal). The Sangha observes strict vegetarianism (unlike the Theravada where vegetarianism is optional) but they will eat in the evening. This change of eating rules became necessary when the Teaching spread to colder climates. The post-midday meals are regarded as medicine. The rule prohibiting the handling of money has been seen by the Mahayana Sangha as impractical in today's world, and it has been reinterpreted as not amassing wealth, whilst a transgression of the celibacy rule entails only demotion in some sects of the Mahayana. Other Mahayana sects, notably in Korea and Japan, admit married priests.

The Vajrayana school is essentially the same in its interpretation of the Teachings as the Mahayana but it stresses the importance of the acceptance of a personal Guru (teacher) who initiates his followers into the, so-called, secret teachings (Tantra). Neither the Theravada nor the mainstream Mahayana schools accept that there are such things as 'secret teachings' in Buddhism. The Gelugpa sect of the Vajrayana is the only Tibetan sect that insists on the celibacy of its clergy.

CENTRAL TEACHING

The central teaching of all schools of Buddhism is grounded in the "Four Noble Truths".

The first truth is that life is subject to Dukkha. Dukkha is often translated as ‘suffering’ but it is much more than that. It certainly means physical and mental suffering but it also means that life is full of frustrations - we would always prefer things to be other than the way they are. As we grow old, we wish we could remain young. If we are poor, we wish we could be rich. When we are separated from our friends and loved ones, we are saddened. Dukkha is birth sickness, old age, pain and despair, separation from those whom we like and association with those whom we dislike. All of these are examples of Dukkha and that is the First Noble Truth.

The Second Noble Truth states that the Cause of Dukkha can be attributed to three things - greed, anger and a deluded mind. We tend to be attached to people and material things and when we are separated from them, we suffer regret. We cling to these things as if they will last forever and we find it hard to accept the fact that they don’t. We get angry or have aversions to those things that we do not like. Buddhism teaches that anger harms the one who is angry more than the object to which this anger is directed. Anger causes heating of the blood and an unpleasant appearance. The more we get angry with someone and they react to our anger the more this anger increases. Anger is unproductive - it doesn’t solve the problem. Our minds are deluded because we do not see things as they really are - that is, subject to impermanence (anicca, Pali), frustrating (dukkha, Pali) and devoid of a permanent self or substance (anatta, Pali). Everything, material or immaterial, is subject to change or impermanence. Perhaps you are sitting in a comfortable chair listening to this talk. If you remain in that chair for the next three hours, without moving, do you still think you could regard the chair as comfortable? Believe me, I do not intend to keep you here for the next three hours. If you remained fixed in that chair for a month, you would probably find that you are crippled and unable to move. If you remain in that chair for a hundred years, you will probably be a skeleton and the chair will be fairly seedy too. What starts as being regarded as ‘comfortable’ can soon change to being uncomfortable. Everything is relative. The way we see things depends on the time, place and current situation. We, ourselves, are subject to this change. Every cell in our body is constantly ageing and dying and being replaced. Our thoughts and ideas are constantly changing or being modified. Your thoughts and ideas, since you arrived here today, are different. They have changed considerably. Is there anything in you which is not subject to change? This is why Buddhists say, in the ultimate sense, there is no ‘you’ or unchanging self entity. This change and this "no self’ is difficult to accept and is, therefore, Dukkha.

The third Noble Truth concerns the overcoming of Dukkha, that is, overcoming the greed anger and delusion that are the source of Dukkha. Accepting change as a characteristic of life and not becoming angry or frustrated about it is part of the way to overcoming Dukkha. The overcoming of Dukkha is termed "Nirvana". Nirvana is not a place but a state of mind - a mind that sees things as they really are and not clouded by delusion.

The Fourth Noble Truth is the method taught by the Buddha for attaining the state of Nirvana. It is the Noble Eightfold Path. You may be wondering why the term ‘Noble’(Ariya) is used for the Path. One who walks the Path is considered to be a noble person.

The eight steps of the Path are:

Right Understanding is knowledge that the Four Noble Truths lead to the overcoming of Dukkha. It does not imply a total understanding of these Truths but a confidence that, by following the Path, the result will be attained.

Right Thought is to be constantly aware of one’s thoughts and actions and thereby avoiding harm to any living creature. Right Speech is awareness of one’s speech so that, what one says, is beneficial to the hearer.

Right Action is to be aware of one’s actions and observe the five precepts so that one does not cause harm to oneself or any other living creature. The five precepts are:

To undertake the training to avoid taking the life of beings. This precept applies to all living beings not just to humans. All beings have a right to their lives and that right should be respected. This would include the unborn, so abortion is not an acceptable alternative for controlling the population, however, contraception is not an issue as far as Buddhists are concerned.

To undertake the training to avoid taking things not given. This precept goes further than mere stealing. One should avoid taking anything unless one can be sure that is intended for you.

To undertake the training to avoid sensual misconduct. This precept is often mistranslated or misinterpreted as relating only to sexual misconduct but it covers any overindulgence in any sensual pleasure such as gluttony as well as misconduct of a sexual nature. A Buddhist should be mindful of the possible effects on themselves and on others of improper sexual activity. This precept would include adultery because this also breaches the precept of not taking what is not freely given. A relationship with someone who is committed to another is stealing. Similarly in cases of rape and child abuse, one is stealing the dignity and self respect of another. One is also the cause of mental pain, not to mention physical pain so one is causing harm to another living being. Therefore, such behaviour is breaking several precepts.

To undertake the training to refrain from false speech. As well as avoiding lying and deceiving, this precept covers slander as well as speech which is not beneficial to the welfare of others.

To undertake the training to abstain from substances which cause intoxication and heedlessness. This precept is in a special category as it does not infer any intrinsic evil in, say, alcohol itself, but indulgence in such a substance could be the cause of breaking the other four precepts.

These are the basic precepts expected as a day to day training of any lay Buddhist.

Right Livelihood is to earn one’s living in a way that does not cause harm or suffering. Such occupations as the selling of intoxicants, firearms or animals for slaughter would be considered inappropriate for Buddhists.

Right Effort is the avoiding of evil which has not already arisen, rejecting evil which has already arisen, the acquiring of wholesome things which have not yet been acquired and the stabilising of those wholesome characteristics that have already been acquired.

Right Mindfulness is training in constant awareness of the effects of one’s actions, whether of body, speech or mind, and thus avoiding harmful actions.

Right Concentration is cultivating the mind through concentration and meditation so that one attains intuitive insight.

Most Buddhists believe that, upon the dissolution of the body, rebirth may take place in a state consistent with the qualities of the consciousness energy, or resultant of past actions (karma) at the time of death. This rebirth may occur in human form, animal form, as a ghost (preta), in a blissful state (deva) or in a woeful state. Each of these states is impermanent and lasts as long as the karmic energy, which was the cause of rebirth, sustains it. In other words, we are subject to a constant round of rebirths (Samsara) until Nirvana, or the release from rebirth is attained. The Theravada tradition believes that rebirth is instantaneous upon the death of the individual, whereas the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions believe in an intermediate state (antarabhava), which can last until the right conditions for rebirth prevail. Three conditions are necessary for conception in the womb of either a human or animal to occur, that is, male sperm, female ovum and the karmic energy.

Karma is not a reward or punishment for past actions but rather a natural result or outcome of them. Buddhists do not accept the concept of a creator god who sits in judgement on his creation. We are our own creator by our past actions. We are what we have done and we will be what we are now doing is what the Law of Karma states. On a popular level as taught in institutionalised Buddhism, whenever misfortune or happiness befalls us, it is due to our past karma. This tends to imply a punisher or rewarder, in other words a judging god, an idea which Buddhists reject. That is why many modern Buddhist scholars interpret Karma as a psychological phenomenon. Bad actions cause remorse, regrets and feelings of guilt which disturb our peace of mind, whereas good actions bring joy and happiness and peace of mind.

Another important doctrine is that of the Heavenly States (Brahma Vihara) which all Buddhists should cultivate. They are Boundless Loving-kindness (Maitri, Sanskrit - Metta, Pali), Boundless Compassion (Karuna), Boundless Joy (Mudita) and Boundless Equanimity (Upekkha). The practice of these four should be directed towards all living beings. The Buddha describes "Boundless Loving-kindness" as that unconditional, selfless love that a mother has for her only child. Boundless Compassion is the feeling of wishing to take onto oneself the sufferings and sorrows of others. This compassion is especially emphasised in the Mahayana school where followers will take the Bodhisattva Vow which promises to postpone the attainment of Enlightenment until all suffering creatures may be saved. Boundless Joy is rejoicing in the good fortune of others. It is the opposite of envy or covetousness. Boundless Equanimity is the cultivation of an even mind - one that is unmoved by either happiness or misfortune.

PRACTICE

Buddhists of all schools regularly perform the action of ‘Taking Refuge’. A refuge is a shelter or safe haven and similarly, in Buddhism, taking refuge is considered to be a protection. The refuges are:- The Buddha - the teacher, is referred to in the scriptures as "Teacher of gods and men". The Dharma (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pali) - his teaching. Before the Buddha passed away, he told Ananda, his chief disciple, that after his passing, the Dharma would be the teacher. The Sangha - is the community of followers. More specifically, it refers to those who have left home to follow the spiritual life, the Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis. In the broader sense, it includes those who are following his teachings whether they be monastic or lay. The initial recitation of the "Three Refuges", before a member of the monastic Sangha, constitutes formally becoming a Buddhist. In the Tibetan tradition, an additional refuge is added, that of taking refuge in the Guru (teacher), who initiates the Cela (student).

Another important devotional practice is the recitation of the five precepts, known as the ‘Panca Sila’ (Pali) or Panca Shila (Sanskrit). These are training rules and, unlike, say, the Ten Commandments in Christianity, they are not based on fear and feelings of guilt. A Buddhist should undertake training to try to observe these precepts but, if a precept is broken, one should analyse one’s action and try to avoid breaking it in the future. This is not to suggest that the consequences of this unwholesome action (Karma) will be avoided - the admonition in the Christian Bible, "as ye sow, so shall ye also reap" applies to Buddhists as well as to Christians. The emphasis in Buddhism is to train one’s self-awareness of one’s actions and their effects on both one’s self and others and to avoid unwholesome actions and cultivate beneficial ones.

Buddhist ceremony will usually start with the offerings of lights, incense and flowers on the shrine. Occasionally, fruit, cakes and drinks will also be offered but the lights, incense and flowers have very special significance.. The lighting of a candle symbolises the teaching (Dharma) which lights up the darkness of ignorance. The incense symbolises the good conduct which permeates the atmosphere with pleasantness, whilst the flowers remind us of impermanence. What is beautiful today, fades with time and eventually becomes ugly.

Other important devotional practices are the chanting of sutras (sermons of the Buddha or other great teachers), prostrations before a Buddha image, and, most importantly, practising meditation. The chanting of sutras is often, mistakenly, referred to as Buddhist prayers. Buddhists do not pray to a god, however, Buddhists from the Mahayana tradition will sometimes pray to Bodhisattvas for assistance and blessings. Prostrations are considered a means of paying respect to the teacher in a similar way to people respecting those who have passed away by placing flowers on a grave. Prostrations also are a means of cultivating humility. The Buddha condemned ‘rites and rituals’ as being useless and not conducive to salvation. The practice of prostrating before images is more a part of institutionalised Buddhism rather than being a part of the Teaching itself.

Meditation (Bhavana) is a central part of Buddhist practice. In the Theravadin tradition, two forms of meditation, calm (Samatha) and insight (Vipassana) are recognised as essential practice in achieving spiritual progress. Calming the mind is achieved by concentration on a specific object and excluding all extraneous thoughts. Often, the breath or the movement of the diaphragm is used as a suitable object for concentration. At other times, objects, such as coloured discs (Kasinas) or meditation beads (Mala) or even counting the breaths are used to fix the mind during this preliminary practice. Once the mind has been trained in concentration, the meditator can then reflect on the feelings and sensations of the body, noting them as they arise and pass away. This practice is known as Vipassana and is the means of cultivating insight or mindfulness.

In the Cha’n (Zen, Japanese) tradition, two techniques are employed. One method is to concentrate on the breath and then try to clear the mind of all thoughts whatsoever. This method eliminates the constant chatter of the mind and results in an awakening (satori). Another Cha’an technique is to ponder a question (Kung-an, Chinese, Koan, Japanese), which has no rational answer. Typical koans are, "what was your face before you were born?" "what is the sound of one hand clapping?" or the word "Mu". These techniques are aimed at pushing the mind beyond rational thought in order to experience the ultimate awakening.

A technique used by the Pure Land Sect of the Mahayana is to constantly recite the name (nien-fo, Chinese, nembutsu, Japanese) of the Buddha of infinite light, Amitabha Buddha (Omi t’o-Fo, Chinese, Amida Butsu, Japanese). This, again, is a means of fixing the mind on one object and not dissimilar to repetitions of prayers used by many Christians. The result is a calmed mind, and, according to Pure Land Buddhism, rebirth in the Pure Land where enlightenment may be attained by listening to the teaching of Buddha Amitabha.

The foregoing is by no means a comprehensive introduction to the teachings of the Buddha and such a short introduction can hardly do the teaching justice, however I hope that it inspires you to investigate the teachings further. Buddhism is not a belief system but a practice which will result in a more harmonious society.

Gửi ý kiến của bạn
Tắt
Telex
VNI
Tên của bạn
Email của bạn
03/05/202117:33(Xem: 1738)
No past, no present, no future. All created things arise and pass away. All names and labels dissolve. You can observe this in meditation practice and, in experiencing impermanence in life and so-called death. At the conclusion of the Diamond Sutra, it is said that, this is how we should view our conditioned existence: as a star at dawn, a bubble in a stream, a drop of dew, a flash of lightning in a summer cloud, a flickering lamp, a phantom and a dream.
03/05/202117:25(Xem: 1583)
Today I sit alone in a house. The government of the country in which I live has requested that I stay here in isolation for the health and safety of the community both here and abroad. Countless others are doing the same thing, except that some call it a forced lock down, or an obstacle to their free movement. I see this as an opportunity to practice. The Buddha taught that the suffering connected with birth, sickness, old age and death is a fact of life for sentient beings in Samsara. But so is the possibility of transcendence from Samsaric suffering. So, for a practitioner, the question is not just “Why?” but also “How?” Why do I/we suffer and, how do I/we overcome suffering? The answer to the former is found in intuitively recognizing (the 3 Poisons): harmful habits of attachment, anger and ignorance; and the answer to the latter lies in resolving to study and practice the Noble Eightfold Path (the antidote) and, fully realizing Buddhahood for the benefit of a
03/05/202117:10(Xem: 1705)
In the Dhammapada, the Buddha says, “What we are today comes from our thoughts of yesterday, and our present thoughts build our life of tomorrow: our life is the creation of our mind.” The Covid-19 pandemic has given many millions of people worldwide time to reflect on their lives and habits of thought, speech and action. I know quite a few who have found a refuge of peace in their gardens. Cultivating, planting seeds, adding water and nutrients all help in maintaining a healthy garden. They are also a necessary part in taking care of our bodies. But what about the mind? Generosity, ethics, loving-kindness, compassion, meditative concentration and wisdom are the food for our inner spiritual garden. Without them there is no harvest, no fruit of Awakening, Buddhahood.
03/05/202117:07(Xem: 1451)
As a child my parents encouraged questions, as did my Heart Lama. However, the latter person gave me two questions to ask before speaking: “will what I am wanting to say, and the way I say it, be helpful or harmful to myself/others? Also, does the question come from ‘I don’t know’ (beginner’s mind), or from a place of judgement and opinions?” The aim was/is to cultivate the mind to be like an empty vessel, not one filled to the brim and overflowing where nothing new can enter.
31/03/202115:17(Xem: 1121)
Today, once again, I have another opportunityto talk to you through this online Dharma Talk, proposed by Master Hui Siong. He is Vice President of the World Buddhist Sangha Counciland General-Secretary for Chinese Language Department. He is alsoabbot of Beeh Low See Temple, Mahakaruna Buddhist Center and Vihara Mahavira Graha Medan Temple in Singapore and Indonesia. The connections which lead to this opportunity could be traced back through the founding Congress of the WBSC in Colombo, Sri Lanka in 1966 and the second Congress held at Vinh Nghiem Pagoda in Saigon, Vietnam in 1969 by the Most Venerable Thich Tam Chau, co-founder of WBSC. At that time, I had just moved from Hoi An to Saigon; so I did not have theopportunity to participate.
25/02/202107:49(Xem: 1297)
Today is the first day of the Lunar New Year, on the 12 February 2021 of western calendar. From the faraway Germany, I have had the honor of being invited by the most Venerable Master Hui Siong, abbot of Beel Low See Temple in Singapore and other temples in Malaysia and Indonesia, to have a talk online with you all today. First, I want to thank Master Hui Siong for the invitation, also his secretary miss Jackie and all of you for this opportunity. Buddha has taught us that everything arises with conditions, and the true nature of everything is emptiness. I am sure, as Buddhists, you are familiar with this teaching. He also taught us other teachings, according to Theravada traditions such as: impermanence, suffering and non-self or according to Mahayana traditions: impermanence, suffering, emptiness and non-self. No matter which traditions, these teachings are the common guidelines for us to practice Buddhism. So, when things as sufferings arise, how do we approach and deal with i
12/08/202013:37(Xem: 2712)
Hungry Ghosts is a suspenseful, character-driven ghost story with heart, humour and scares. Set in contemporary Melbourne during the month of the Hungry Ghost Festival, when the Vietnamese community venerate their dead, four families find themselves haunted by ghosts from the past. As these hauntings intensify, they threaten to unleash their deepest fears and expose secrets long buried. Through an ensemble of characters, both Vietnamese and Anglo, Hungry Ghosts explores the concept of the inherent trauma we pass down from one generation to the next, and how notions of displacement impact human identity - long after the events themselves. Can you ever really leave behind the trauma of your past? Is it possible to abandon both spiritual and physical culture, or does it form part of your fundamental DNA? To free themselves and those they love, each character in Hungry Ghosts must atone for their sins and confront their deepest fears or risk being swallowed by the shadows of their p
08/07/202009:09(Xem: 6514)
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is not over yet. We need to keep looking after ourselves and our community to stop the virus spreading. Due to increased cases in Victoria, some restrictions have changed. From 22 June 2020: · You cannot have more than five visitors in your home · You cannot gather outdoors with more than 10 people · Schools, libraries, places of worship and businesses remain open · Stay close to home and do not travel if possible
22/06/202013:23(Xem: 2792)
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero (Sinhala: අග්ග මහා පණ්ඩිත බලංගොඩ ආනන්ද මෛත්‍රෙය මහා නා හිමි;23 August 1896 – 18 July 1998) was a Sri Lankan scholar Buddhist monk and a personality of Theravada Buddhism in the twentieth century.[3][4] He was highly respected by Sri Lankan Buddhists, who believe that he achieved a higher level of spiritual development through meditation.[2][5] Sri Lankan Buddhists also considered Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero as a Bodhisattva, who will attain Buddhahood in a future life.
23/05/202015:18(Xem: 3705)
Dr. Gagan Malik Interview: Mother Nature's Fury with Human Beings | 4 ways to 'overcome' Covid-19, With the rapidly rising number of covid-19 cases in the world's second most populous country, India, and the world's largest lockdown still continuing, I caught up with my friend who is a Bollywood actor, UN Peace Ambassador for South-East Asia and a passionate Buddhist, Dr. Gagan Malik. In this fascinating 47min interview, he shares his various concerns about the covid-19 situation, such as the lack of clear information available on how covid-19 patients are being treated in hospitals, the wastage of time during the lockdown, our mistreatment of Mother Nature/Earth, and also addresses his Buddhists friends on some concerning matters. He also provides some wise suggestions to everyone from a Buddhist point of view on how we can make the most of the lockdown and how collectively as a human race, we can do something about our current dire plight. Thank you so much Dr. Malik for al