69- Bhimrao Ramji AmbedkarBhimraoRamji Ambedkar (1891-1956) là cựu bộ trưởng Tư pháp trong chính phủ Nerhu, mộtngười tranh đấu cho công bằng xã hội, đơn độc chống lại sự phận chia giai cấp giữacon người và vạch trần những sai lầm của Ấn giáo. Sinh ra trong một gia đìnhtiện dân sống bên lề xã hội, nhưng ông đã vươn lên như một quả núi bằng tríthông minh của mình. Là một Phật tử trung kiên, ông đã khuyến khích và quy ytập thể cho 380 000 người tiện dân trong một buổi lễ tổ chức ngày 14 tháng10 năm 1956, đánh dấu sự hồi sinh của Phật giáo trên đất ẤnBhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, also known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards the untouchables. WikipediaBorn: 14 April 1891, Dr. Ambedkar Nagar, IndiaDied: 6 December 1956, Delhi, IndiaFull name: Bhimrao Ramji AmbedkarEducation: London School of Economics and Political Science (1916–1922), Columbia University (1913–1915), Elphinstone College (1908–1912), University of London, Columbia University Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, moreSpouse: Savita Ambedkar (m. 1948–1956), Ramabai Ambedkar (m. 1906–1935)
Born of a Dalit Mahar family of western India, he was as a boy humiliated by his high-caste schoolfellows. His father was an officer in the Indian army. Awarded a scholarship by the Gaekwar (ruler) of Baroda (now Vadodara), he studied at universities in the United States, Britain, and Germany. He entered the Baroda Public Service at the Gaekwar’s request, but, again ill-treated by his high-caste colleagues, he turned to legal practice and to teaching. He soon established his leadership among Dalits, founded several journals on their behalf, and succeeded in obtaining special representation for them in the legislative councils of the government. Contesting Mahatma Gandhi’s claim to speak for Dalits (or Harijans, as Gandhi called them), he wrote What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables (1945).In 1947 Ambedkar became the law minister of the government of India. He took a leading part in the framing of the Indian constitution, outlawing discrimination against untouchables, and skillfully helped to steer it through the assembly. He resigned in 1951, disappointed at his lack of influence in the government. In October 1956, in despair because of the perpetuation of untouchability in Hindu doctrine, he renounced Hinduism and became a Buddhist, together with about 200,000 fellow Dalits, at a ceremony in Nagpur. Ambedkar’s book The Buddha and His Dhammaappeared posthumously in 1957, and it was republished as The Buddha and His Dhamma: A Critical Edition in 2011, edited, introduced, and annotated by Aakash Singh Rathore and Ajay Verma.